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Saturday, September 6, 2014


467. To transform a sentence is to change it from one grammatical form to another 
        without altering its sense. The following examples will show how it is possible to
        change the form of a sentence without changing its meaning. Such a process is 
        known as the Conversion or Transformation of Sentences.


             1. Sentences containing the Adverb ' too '

      1). She is too proud to apologize.
              She is so proud that she will not apologize.

         2). He is too honest to accept a bribe.
              he is so honest that he will not accept a bribe.

         3).The news is too good to be true.
              The news is so good that it cannot be true.

         4). he is too old to learn things.
              He is so old that he cannot learn things.

         5). This tree is too high for me to climb
              This tree is so high that I cannot climb it.

                    2. Modes of expressing a Condition

468. The following are some of the common ways of expressing a Condition :--

         1). By the use of the Conjunction ' if ' or ' unless ' ;as,

               *) If a king rules justly, his subjects love him.
               *) Unless a king rules justly, his subjects do not love him.
               *) You will succeed, if you work hard.
               *) Unless you work hard , you will not succeed.


         2). By the Conjunction ' if '' understood ; as, 

               *) Were I a rich man, I should be generous.
               *) Had he been wise, he would not have accepted the offer.
               *) Should he meet me, he would recognize me.


         3). By the use of a Conjunctional Phrase ; as,

                *) But that he is [ = if he were not ] a good man, I should not have helped
                     him in his distress.
                *) In case he does not behave properly, he will be dismissed.


         4). By the use of Participal Phrase ; as,

                *) Supposing it were true, how should we act ?
                *) I shall buy the book  provided that it is cheap.


         5). By the use of the Imperative Mood ; as,

                *) Take care of the pence, and the pounds will take care of themselves.
                *) Work hard, and you will pass.
                *) Spare the rod and spoil the child.
                *) Persevere, and you will succeed.


         6). By the use of the Preposition ' but ' followed by a phrase as object ; as,

                *) But for his help [ = If he had not got his help ], he would have failed in
                    his mission.

          7). By the use of the Phrase ' one more ' ; as,

                *) One more effort [ = If you make one more effort ], and you are sure to 
                 *) One more such opportunity, and we are made.

           8). By the use of an Interrogative Sentence followed by an Imperative one ; as,

                  *) Have you done your homeowrk ? Then come in.
                      [ Come in, if you have done your homework. ]
                  *) Are you anxious to pass ? Then work hard.


            3. Ways of expressing a Concession or Contrast

469. The following are some of the common ways of expressing a Clause denoting
        Concession or Contrast :---

        (1) By the Conjunction ' though ' or ' although ' ; as,

              *) He is honest, though ( or although ) he is poor.
              *) He failed, though ( or although ) he worked hard.
              *) A book's a book, although there is nothing in it.


         (2) By the Conjunction ' as ' ; as,

              *) Poor as he is, he is honest.
              *) Beautiful as she is, she is not vain.

         (3) By the relative Adverb ' however ', followed by some Adjective or Adverb ; as,

               *) However rich he may be, he is not contented.
               *) However hard he may try, he will not succeed.

          (4) By the proposition ' notwithstanding ' followed by a Noun Clause ; as,

                *) He is still discontented, notwithstanding that [ = although ] he gets more
                    salary than he deserves.

           (5) By the Phrases ' at  the same time ', ' all the same ' ; as,

                  *) He is rich ; at the same time he is not proud.
                  *) He is rich ; all the same he is not proud.


            (6) By an Absolute Participle, followed by a Noun Clause ; as,

                  *) Admitting that he is strong, he is timid.


             (7)  By the Adverb ' indeed ', followed by the Conjunction ' but ' ; as,

                   *) He is rich indeed, but he does not help the poor.
                       [ Although he is rich, yet he does not help the poor .]

             (8) By the Phrases '  nevertheless ', ' none the less ' ; as ,

                   *) Bali is my friend, nevertheless I do not trust him.
                   *) It rained yesterday, but the air today is none the less hot and disagreeable.

              (9) By the Conjunction ' even if ' ; as,

                    *) Such a reform would not take the country far, even if it were necessary.

             4. Interchange of the Degrees of Comparison

470. The following examples will show that it is possible to change the Degree of
        Comparison of an Adjective or Adverb in a sentence, without altering its
        meaning :---

     1). Positive.            : He is as strong as Hercules.
          Comparative.   : Hercules was not stronger than he is.

     2). Comparative.   : Afzal is more intelligent than Ahmad.
          Positive.            : Ahmad is not so intelligent as Afzal.

     3). Positive.            : No other metal is so useful as iron.
          Comparative.   : Iron is more useful than any other metal.
          Superlative.      : Iron is the most useful of all metals.

     4). Positive.            : No other town in India is so big as Bombay.
          Comparative.   : Bombay is bigger than any other town in India.
          Superlative.      : Bombay is the biggest town in India.

     5). Positive.            : Some boys are at least as industrious as Krishna.
          Comparative.   : Krishna is not more industrious than some other boys are.
                                       Some boys are not less industrious than Krishna.
         Superlative         : Krishna is not the most industrious of all boys.

    6). Positive.              : I have never seen so beautiful  a diamond as this.
         Comparative      : This is more beautiful than any other diamond that I have ever seen.
         Superlative         : This is the most beautiful diamond that I have ever seen.

   7). Superlative.        : America is the richest country in the world.
        Comparative.     : America is richer than any other country in the world.
        Positive.              : No other country in the world is so rich as America.

   8). Superlative.        : Asoka was one of the greatest of Kings.
        Comparative.     : Asoka was greater than most other Kings.
        Positive.              : Very few Kings were so great as Asoka.

               5. Interchange of Active and Passive Voices

471. A sentence in the Active form can be changed into the Passive form, and vice versa :--

     1). Active.          :   The people crowned him king.
          Passive.         :   He was crowned king by the people.

     2). Active           :   The teacher gave him a prize.
          Passive.         :   a) He was given a prize by the teacher.
                                     b) A prize was given him by the teacher.

     3). Active           :   Who taught you French ?
          Passive.         : a) By whom were you taught French ?
                                   b) By whom was French taught you ?

     4). Active          :    One cannot gather  grapes from thistles.
          Passive         :    Grapes cannot be gathered from thistles.

     5). Active         :    Give the order.
          Passive        :    Let the order be given.

     6). Active         :    Enter by the left door.
          Passive        :    You are requested to enter by the left door.

     7). Active         :     It is time to close the shop.
          Passive        :     It is time for the shop to be closed.

      8). Active        :     One should keep one's promises.
           Passive       :     Promises should be kept.

      9). Active        :     Who called you names ?
           Passive       :     By whom were you called names ?

      10). Active      : The Greeks expected to win the international trophy.
             Passive     : It was expected by the Greeks that they would win the international trophy.

       11). Active       :   Pay this bill today.
              Passive      :   Let this bill be paid today.

       12. Passive        :   Our plan has been discovered.
             Active         :    Someone has discovered our plan.

       13. Passive        :   Our army has been defeated.  
             Active         :    The enemy has defeated our army.

        14. Passive.      :    This is too good for us to expect.
              Active.       :    This is good to be expected.

        15. Passive.       :    What cannot be cured must be endured.
              Active         :    Men must endure what they cannot cure.

       NOTE :-- The Passive Voice is used when the Subject of the Active Voice  is unknown
                        unimportant or vague ( e.g. people, they, a person, some-body ); also when
                        the person or thing acted upon is to be made prominent ; as,

                     *) Pens are made of steel.
                     *) He was killed in the Last War.
                     *) All the thieves have been arrested.
                     *) Our team has been defeated.

       6. Interchange of Affirmative and Negative Sentences

472.  (a) An Affirmative Sentence can be changed into the Negative form without 
               altering its meaning :---

          1).  Affirmative.  :   You are richer than I.
                Negative        :    I am not so rich as you are.

          2). Affirmative.   :   As soon as the thief saw the policeman he ran away.
               Negative.         :   No sooner did the thief see the policeman than he ran away.

          3). Affirmative   :   Asoka was the wisest king that ever reigned in India.
               Negative        :   No other king as wise as Asoka ever reigned in India.

          4). Affirmative  :  Few women can keep a secret.
               Negative       :   Not many women can keep a secret.

          5). Affirmative   :  I was doubtful whether it was Ashok.
               Negative        :  I was not sure that it was Ashok.

          6). Affirmative    :  It always pours when it rains.
               Negative         :  It never rains but it pours.

          7). Affirmative    :  Everybody will admit that he did his best.
               Negative         :  Nobody will deny that he did his best.

(b) In the same way, a Negative Sentences can be changed into an Affirmative Sentence
      without changing its meaning :---

           8) Negative.     :     None but the brave deserve the fair.
               Affirmative :     The brave alone deserve the fair.

            9) Negative      :     No sooner did the bell ring than the students went into the
                Affirmative :      As soon as the bell rang, the students went into the classroom.

           10) Negative      :     There is no smoke without fire.
                 Affirmative :     Where there is smoke there is fire.

           11) Negative       :     There is nobody but believes in his honesty.
                 Affirmative   :     Everybody believes in his honesty.

            12) Negative       :     There was no one present who did not praise his speech.
                  Affirmative  :      Everyone who was present praised his speech.

    7. Interchange of Interrogative and Assertive Sentences

473. (a) Changing Questions into Statements.

     1).  Interrogative.---- Is he not a fool to do such a deed ?
           Assertive.       ---- He is a fool to do such a deed.

      2). Interrogative.---- Is not blood thicker than water ?
           Assertive.       ----- Blood is thicker than water.

      3). Interrogative.---- Can the leopard change his spots ?
           Assertive.       ----- The leopard cannot change his spots.

       4). Interrogative.----- Were we born simply to die ?
            Assertive.       ----- We were not born simply to die.

        5). Interrogative.---- What though the field be lost ?
             Assertive.---------  It does not matter though the field be lost.

        6). Interrogative.---- Can we ever forget her kindness to us ?
             Assertive.       ---- We can never forget her kindness to us.

        7). Interrogative.---- Is there anything greater than love?
             Assertive.       ---- There is nothing greater than love.

        8). Interrogative.---- Who would not cry when struck ?
             Assertive.       ---- Everyone would cry when struck.

        9). Interrogative.---- Who can surpass her in loveliness ?
             Assertive.       ----  No one can surpass her in loveliness.

       10). Interrogative.---- How can man die better than facing fearful odds ?
              Assertive.       ---- Man cannot die better than facing fearful odds.

       11). Interrogative.---- When can their glory fade ?
              Assertive.       ---- Their glory can never fade.

(b) Changing Statements into Questions.

        12). Assertive.    ----- There is nothing better than a busy life.
               Interrogative.--- Is there anything better than a busy life ?

        13). Assertive.      ----- Prevention is better than cure.
               Interrogative.----- Is not prevention better than cure ?

        14). Assertive.      ------ Nobody can deny that honesty is the best policy.
               Interrogative.------Who can deny that honesty is the best policy ?

        15). Assertive.      ------ We shall never forget our national heroes.
               Interrogative.------ Shall we ever forget our national heroes ?

   8. Interchange of Exclamatory  and Assertive Sentences

474. (a) Changing Exclamations into Assertions .

         1). Exclamatory.    :    O for a lodge in some  vast wilderness.
              Assertive.           :     I ardently wish for a lodge in some vast wilderness.

         2). Exclamatory.    :     O what a fall was there, my countrymen !
              Assertive.           :      That was a terrible fall, my countrymen.

         3). Exclamatory.    :  How sweet the moonlight sleeps  upon this bank !
              Assertive.           :  The moonlight sleeps most sweetly upon this blank .

         4). Exclamatory.    :   What a piece of work is man !
              Assertive.           :   Man is a wonderful piece of work.

          5). Exclamatory.    :    Alas ! that youth should pass away so soon !
               Assertive.           :    It is sad to think that youth  should pass away so soon. 

(b) Changing Assertions into Examinations.

           6). Assertive.          :   I wish I had the wings of a dove.
                Exclamatory.    :   O that I had the wings of a dove !

          7). Assertive.           :   It is a very horrible sight.
               Exclamatory.     :   What a horrible sight !

           8). Assertive            :   She dances very beautifully.
                Exclamatory      :   How beautifully she dances !

          9). Assertive.           :   It is very sad that we should have to part.
               Exclamatory.     :   Alas ! that we should have to part !

          10). Assertive.        :    It was very stupid of me to forget her name.
                 Exclamatory   :    How stupid of me to forget her name !

9. The Substitution of One Part of Speech for another

475. Study carefully the following examples :---

    1). He promised his support to the motion.
         He promised to support the motion.

    2). He gave me help ungrudgingly.
         He did not grudge me help.

    3). A dog is wonderfully faithful.
         The faithfulness of a dog is wonderful.

    4). Man is at times inclines to act dishonestly.
         Man is at times inclined to dishonesty.

    5). He acted in this deliberately.
         This act of his was deliberate.

    6). It was not his intention to harm you.
         He did not harm you intentionally.

   7). It is probable that he will come tomorrow.
        He will probably come tomorrow.

  8). It was a fortunate thing that you were absent.
       Fortunately you were absent.

   9). It is quite evident that he has been insulted.
        Evidently he has been insulted.

   10). He is careless in everything that he does.
          Everything that he does is done carelessly.

    11). He was very generous to all.
           He treated all very generously.

    12). He examined the whole case carefully.
           He examined the whole case with much care.

    13). They passed an anxious time.
           They passed the time anxiously.

    14). It is apparently a new hat.
           It appears to be a new hat.


  1. What will be the Positive of "Day by day she clung closer to him"....

    1. Day by day , she clung as close to him as she could

  2. What will be the Positive of "Day by day she clung closer to him"....

  3. What is the passive voice of "prevention is better than cure"

    1. Cure is not as good as prevention.

  4. What is the passive voice of "prevention is better than cure"

  5. He is strong, he is timid.
    Rewrite the sentence starting "Strong as..."
    What would be the new sentence?

    1. He is strong, he is timid.
      => Although he is strong, he is timid.
      => Strong as he is, he is timid.

    2. Strong as he is,he is looking timid

    3. Strong as he is,he is also timid.

  6. He is strong as well as timid.

  7. He is strong as well as timid.

  8. Such as old thing is of no use....? Interogative

    1. Is such as old thing of no use?

    2. Correct such an old thing of any have to remove the negative

  9. He has not done his homework.I am sure if it. Join the sentence without using and but or so.

  10. Why cry over split milk?(Change into assertive)

  11. One should not cry over split milk

  12. He is awarded for his honesty ( rewrite using so)

  13. There is no smoke without fire(change into positive degree)

  14. He is as generous as his brother. ( make it negative statement and Positive degree)

    1. The sentence is already positive
      Ans....his brother is not more generous than he (is).

  15. It always pours when it rains (change into negative) please explain

  16. God helps those who help themselves change into Interrogative

    1. Does not God help those who help themselves ?

  17. I am proud of my country.
    Change this sentence to interrogative sentence.
    Plz answer soon

  18. No one dare deny this (make affirmative)

  19. Though he is strong he is timid (Begin:- Strong as)

  20. Shall we ever forget his generosity ( change into assertive sentence

  21. Mohan is a honest boy. Change into negative.

  22. What afool he is! Change exclaimatory to assertive sentence.

  23. Honesty plays a very important role in the work place
    Change these sentence into exclamatory sentence

  24. Day by day she clung closer to him. (Change to positive degree)