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Wednesday, September 3, 2014


441. An Adverb Clause does the work of an Adverb in a Complex sentence. there are Adverb
       Clauses of ----

      1). Time                                   5). Result or Consequence.
      2). Place                                  6) Concession or Supposition.
      3). Cause or reason.                7) Condition.
      4). Purpose.                             8) Comparison.

                           1. Adverb Clauses of Time

442. Adverb Clauses of Time are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions as, 
         as soon as, before, since, after, while, until, till, when, whenever, etc.

       1) They arrived at the destination as the sun was setting.
       2) As we were going down the hill, the horse fell.
       3) As soon as he heard of my success, he wrote to me.
       4) No sooner did the bell ring than the boys left the room.
       5) Just as he rose to speak, the clock struck eleven.
       6) I will die before I submit.
       7) Wait until I come.
       8) I have not heard from him since he left this place.
       9) After the vote was taken, the meeting broke up.
      10) Don't talk while the teacher is teaching.
      11) When he finishes his work, he goes out to play.
      12) Whenever the king saw a subject in distress, he always relieved him.
      13) So long as the rain continued, I remained in my tent.
      14) The doctor always comes whenever he is sent for.

                      2. Adverb Clauses of Place

443. Adverb Clauses of Place are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions where,
        whence, whither, etc.

       1) Where the Piper went, the children followed.
       2) The commander stood where he could get a good view.
       3) Where thou goest, I will go.
       4) The wind bloweth whither it listeth.
       5) Where there is a will, there is a way.
       6) He makes friend wherever he goes.
       7) You can go wherever you like.
       8) He returned whence he came.
       9) He cannot climb down whence I have descended.
     10) Whither I go, ye cannot come.

                 3. Adverb Clauses of Cause or Reason.

444. Adverb Clauses of Cause or Reason are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions 
        as, because, since, that.

        1) As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
        2) He will succeed, because he works hard.
        3) We learn the dead languages, because they afford great mental culture.
        4) He is liked, because he is generous.
        5) I do but sing because I must.
        6) I will never help you, because I do not trust you.
        7) Since you promise to help me, I will tell you the secret.
        8) Since you desire it, I will look into the matter.
        9) I am glad that you have come.
      10) She was very pleased that you had won the first prize.

                     4. Adverb Clauses of Purpose

445. Adverb Clause of Purpose are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions
        that and lest.----

       1) I die that India may live.
       2) He ran hard that he might catch the train.
       3) He worked hard that he might become rich.
       4) We sow that we may reap.
       5) In order that he might escape, he changed his dress.
       6) He took medicine that he might get well.
       7) He worked hard lest he should fail.
       8) Sleep not lest your enemies steal a march on you.
       9) He ran hard lest he should miss the rain.

          5. Adverb Clauses of Result or Consequence.

446. Adverb Clauses of result or Consequence are introduced by the Subordinating
        Conjunction that ( generally preceded by so or such in the Main Clause ); but the
        Conjunction is something understood.

        1) I walked so fast that I arrived in good time.
        2) He ran so hard that he was out of breath.
        3) This so annoyed the soldier that he drew his sword.
        4) He talked such nonsense that nobody would listen to him.
        5) He labours so diligently that  he is sure to succeed.
        6) So good a man is he that all like him.
        7) So bravely did he fight that he won the admiration of all.
        8) So great a storm arose that the ships were wrecked.
        9) They behaved in such a way that all praised them.
       10) He spoke in such a way that all could understand him.
       11) He runs so quickly that I cannot keep up with him.
       12) It was so far off ( that ) I could not see it.
       13) He was so weak ( that ) he could hardly stand.
       14) So terrible a disease broke out that very few people survived.

           6. Adverb Clauses of Concession or Supposition

447. Adverb Clauses of Concession or Supposition are introduced by the Subordinating
        Conjunctions although , though, even if.

       1). Although I told her not to do it,  yet she did it.
       2). Although he did not work hard, he passed.
       3). Although it rained yesterday, we played football.
       4). Although we disregard this warning the evil day will come none the less.
       5). Though he is poor, he is contented.
       6). Though He slay me, yet I will trust in Him.
       7). He will not tell a lie even if he is bribed.
       8). I will speak the truth even if you kill me.
       9). Even if he is old, he is able to do a great deal of work.
     10). Even if it rains, we shall play.

                    7. Adverb Clauses of Condition

448. Adverb Clauses of Condition are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunctions 
        if, unless, whether.

     1). I shall take some,  if you please.
     2).  If I make a promise, I keep it.
     3).  If you have done wrong, confess your fault.
     4). If it is fine this afternoon, we shall play cricket.
     5). If wishes were horses, beggars would ride.
     6). If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.
     7). Take an umbrella, in case it rains.
     8). Unless it is fine today, we shall not play tennis.
     9). I will not let thee go, unless thou bless me.
   10). You will not pass unless you work harder.
   11). I must go, whether he comes or not.
   12). I must speak the truth, whether he likes it or not.
   13). I agree to this, provided you sign your name.
   14). I will forgive you on condition that you confess your guilt.

NOTE .--- (1) Sometimes no Subordinating Conjunction is used in Adverb Clauses of

       1). Had I been there, it would not have happened
       2). Had he acted on my advice he would have succeeded.
       3). Had I not seen this with my own eyes I would not have believed it.
       4). Were an angel to tell me such a thing of her, I would not believe it.
       5). Were my brother here, he would help me.
       6). Should you be passing, call in to see me.
       7). Should I be given an appointment, I shall feel obliged.

       (2) Adverb Clauses of Condition are sometimes introduced by a Relative Pronoun,
            or Relative Adjective, or Relative Adverb ( without any antecedent ) ; as,

            1). Whatever you do, be just.
            2). Whatever happens, don't lose temper.
            3). Whichever way the thief goes, we shall be sure to catch him.
            3). However secretly he acts, he will not take us by surprise.
            4). However cleverly he may cheat, he will be found out at last.

                  8. Adverb Clauses of Comparison

449. Adverb Clauses of Comparison are of two kinds :---

        (1) Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Manner.
        (2) Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Degree.

         (*) Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Manner are introduced by the Subordinating
              Conjunctions as, as if, as though.

             1). As the tree falls, so shall it lie.
             2). As the twig is bent, so will the tree grow.
             3). As you sow, so shall you reap.
             4). Do as you like.
             5). It happened as I told you.
             6). As you have made your bed, so you must lie on it.
             7). He then listened as if he expected something to happen.
             8). He was walking as if he was in a hurry.

450. Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Degree are introduced by the Subordinating
       Conjunction than, or by the Relative Adverb as.

       1). It is as long as it is broad.
       2). He is as dull as he is fat.
       3). He is not so rich as you think.
       4). She is as wise as she is beautiful.
       5). He is taller than his brother was at his age.
       6). No one can sing better than Radha.
       7). She does better work than I do.
       8). He can run faster than I can.
       9). The sooner we begin, the earlier we shall finish it.
      10). The more you learn, the more remains for you to learn.

NOTE :-- In Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Degree the Verb is often understood :--

     1). He is more intelligent than his brother [ is ].
     2). John is younger than William [ is ].
     3). He works harder than I [ work ].
     4). The wolf is not so fierce as the tiger [ is ].
     5). His departure is as sure as death [ is sure ].
     6). Red as a rose is she.


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