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Thursday, September 4, 2014


451. We have already seen that a Compound Sentence consists of two or more Independent
        Sentences or Co-ordinate Clauses, generally joined together by a Co-ordinating 
        Conjunction ; as,

        1) The way was long and night was cold.
           [ Here each Co-ordinate Clause is a Simple Sentence .]

        2) I mean what I say and I say what I mean.
           [ Here each Co-ordinated Clause is a Complex Sentence. ]

        3) I asked her what her name was, but she gave no reply.
           [ here the first Clause is a Complex Sentence, while the second is a Simple 

         (*) From the above sentences, it is clear that a Co-ordinate Clause of a Compound
              Sentence may be a Simple Sentence or a Complex Sentence.

         (*) It will further be noticed that sentences 1 and 2 are Double Sentences, while 
              sentence 3 is a Multiple sentence.

452. The connection between two co-ordinate Clauses of a Compound Sentence can be of 
        four kinds :--

        1). Copulative Co-ordination.
        2). Disjunctive or Alternative Co-ordination.
        3). Adversative Co-ordination.
        4). Illative Co-ordination.

                     1. The Copulative Co-ordination.

453. In this case one clause is simply added to another. The Copulative Co-ordination 
        always implies the super addition of a second proposition to the first. Co-ordinate 
        Clauses are united copulatively by Conjunctions and, morever, furthermore, both
        ....and, as well as, likewise, also, not only.....but also ; as,

        1). God made the country and man made the town.
        2). She sings well, she dances also.
        3). He is an idler, and a gambler too.
        4). Asoka was not only a great king, but he was a good ruler also.
        5). The poor suffer as well as the rich.
        6). He was not only fined, but also sentenced.

454. Sometimes the Conjunctions are omitted, and the Co-ordinate Clauses are separated
        by commas or semicolons ; as,

        1). I came, I saw, I conquered.
        2). Reading maketh a full man, writing an exact man, speaking a ready man.

                         2.The Disjunctive Co-ordination

455. In this case two Co-ordinate Clauses are placed together, but they are disconnected 
        in meaning. Such clauses are connected by either....or, neither...nor, or,else, 
        otherwise ; as,

        1). She must weep or she will die.
        2). Work hard, else you will fail.
        3). Work hard, otherwise you will not pass.
        4). Either this man is mad or he is a fool.
        5). Neither a borrower nor a lender be.

                    3. The Adversative Co-ordination

456. The adversative relation places Co-ordinate Clauses in opposition to each other
        Such clauses are connected by but, still, yet, nevertheless, however, while ; as,

        1). The body dies, but the soul is immortal.
        2). He is poor, yet he looks happy.
        3). The form perishes ; the matter, however, is indestructible.
        4). He worked very hard, nevertheless he failed.
        5). You are very rich, still you are not contented.
        6). Wise men love truth, while fools shun it.


                        4. The Illative Co-ordination

457. In this case one clause expresses the cause, and the other the effect of that cause. The
        chief Illative Conjunctions are :-- therefore, wherefore, consequently, hence, accordingly,
        for, since, in as much as.

        1). It rained heavily ; therefore the streets were flooded.
        2). He was a reliable man ; consequently all trusted him.
        3). He will die some day ; for all men are mortal.
        4). He is ill ; so he cannot attend the meeting.

458. Co-ordinate Clauses can also be joined together by a Relative Pronoun or Adverb, 
         provided it is used in a Continuative and not in a Restrictive sense ; as,

        1). He killed his children, which ( = and this ) was the most inhuman act.
        2). He went to Bombay, where ( = and there ) he saw All India Industrial Exhibition.
        3). I shall come to-morrow, when ( = and there ) we shall have further discussion on
             the subject.
        4). I went to see my friend, who ( = and he ) recognized me at once.

459. Contracted Sentences. Sometimes Compound Sentences are contracted ; as,

        1). When there are two Predicates to the same Subject.
              He child their wanderings, but ( he ) relieved their pain.

        2). When there are two Subjects to the same Predicate.
             Some love work ; others ( love ) play.


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