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Sunday, December 12, 2010

STRONG AND WEAK VERBS ( 13 )

                                                 CHAPTER-27

268. The Principal( chief) Parts of  verb, form which 
        all other forms can be obtained , are
        
          (1) the Present tense,
        (2) the Past tense,
        (3) the Past participle.




269. Verbs are divided into Strong and Weak verbs,
        according to the way in which they form their 
        Past Tense and Past Participle.
     
         (1) Strong verbs are those which form their Past Tense by vowel changes
              in the body of the word without adding any suffix;as

             >)  Go,..went,..gone.
             >)  rise ,..rose,..risen.
             >)  give,..gave,..given.
             
        

        (2) Weak Verbs are those which form their Past Tense and Past Participle
              by adding -d, -t, or -ed to the Present,with or without vowel change in the
              body of the word;as,

             >) Love,..loved,..loved.
             >) think,..thought,..thought.
             >) buy,..bought,..bought.

                            

                            1.List of Strong Verbs
 
        270. Study the following list of Strong Verbs :-

  
*) Present : Abide             
*) Past : abode       
*) Past Part : abode
   

*) Present : Arise            
*) Past : arose         
*) Past Part : arisen
    

*) Present : Bear (bring forth)  
*) Past : bore          
*) Past part : born
    
*) Present : Bear (carry)            
*) Past : bore          
*) Past Part : borne
    
*) Present : Beat               
*) Past : beat          
*) Past Part : beaten
    
*) Present : Become          
*) Past : became     
*) Past Part : become
    
*) Present : Beget             
*) Past : begot         
*) Past Part : begotten
              
                                  

*) Present : Begin           
 *) Past : began        
*) Past Part : begun
                                    
*) Present : Behold         
*) Past : beheld       
*) Past Part : (behold,beholden)
                                    
*) Present : Bid                
*) Past : bade,bid    
*) Past part : bidden,bid
                                   
*) Present : Bind              
*) Past : bound     
*) Past Part : bound,bounden
                                   
*) Present : Bite               
*) Past : bit             
*) Past part : bitten,bit
                                    
*) Present : Blow             
*) Past : blew         
*) Past Part : blown
                                    
*) Present : Chide            
*) Past : chid          
*) Past part : chidden,chid
                                    
*) Present : Choose         
*) Past : chose        
*) Past part : chosen
                                    
*) Present : Cleave ( split )          
*) Past : clove,cleft
*) Past part : cloven,cleft 
                                    
*) Present : Cling            
*) Past : clung         
*) Past part : clung
                                    
*) Present : Come            
*) Past : came          
*) Past part : come
                                   
*) Present : Dig                
*) Past : dug            
*) Past part : dug
                                   
*) Present : Draw            
*) Past : drew          
*) Past part : drawn
                                    
*) Present : Drink            
*) Past : drank        
*) Past Part : drunk,drunken
                                    
*) Present : Drive             
*) Past : drove        
*) Past Part : driven
                                    
*) Present : Eat                
*) Past : ate             
*) Part Past : eaten
                                    
*) Present : Fall               
*) Past : fell            
*) Past Part : fallen
                                    
*) Present : Fight             
*) Past : fought       
*) Past Part : fought
                                   
*) Present : Find              
*) Past : found          
*) Past Part : found
                                   
*) Present : Fly                
*) Past : flew           
*) Past Part : flown
                                   
*) Present : Forbear        
*) Past : forbore     
*) Past Part : forborne
                                    
*) Present : Forbid          
*) Past : forbade      
*) Past Part : forbidden
                                    
*) Present : Forget          
*) Past :  forgot      
*) Past Part : forgotten
                                    
*) Present : Forsake       
*) Past : forsook      
*) Present Part : forsaken
                                    
*) Present : Freeze          
*) Past : froze         
*) Past Part : frozen
                                    
*) Present : Get               
*) Past : got             
*) Past Part : got,gotten
                                    
*) Present : Give             
*) Past : gave           
*) Past Part : given
                                    
*) Present : Go               
*) Past : went           
*) Past Part : gone
                                    
*) Present : Grind          
*) Past : ground        
*) Past Part : ground
                                    
*) Present : Grow          
*) Past : grew           
*) Past Part : grown
                                   
*) Present : Hide            
*) Past : hid              
*) Past Part : hid,hidden
                                    
*) Present : Hold            
*) Past : held            
*) Past part : held
                                    
*) Present : Know          
*) Past : knew           
*) Past part : known
                                    
*) Present : Ride            
*) Past : rode            
*) Past Part : ridden
                                   
*) Present : Ring           
*) Past : rang           
*) Past Part : rung
                                   
*) Present : Rise            
*) Past : rose             
*) Past Part :risen
                                    
*) Present : Run             
*) Past : ran               
*) Past Part : run
                                   
*) Present : See              
*) Past : saw              
*) Past Part : seen
                                    
*) Present : Shake          
*) Past : shook          
*) Past Part : shaken
                                   
*) Present : Shave          
*) Past : shaved         
*) Past Part : shaven ( w )  

*) Present : Shear
*) Past : sheared
*) Past Part : shorn ( w )

*) Present : Shine
*) Past : shone
*) Past part : shone

*) Present : Show
*) Past : showed
*) Past Part : shown ( w )

*) Present : Shrink
*) Past : shrank
*) Past Part : shrunk, shrunken

*) Present : Sing
*) Past : sang
*) Past Part : sung

*) Present : Sink
*) Past : sank
*) Past Part : sunk, sunken

*)Present : Sit
*) Past : sat
*) Past part : sat

*) Present : Slay
*) Past : slew
*) Past part : slain

*) Present : Slide
*) Past : slid
*) Past Part : slid

*) Present : Sling
*) Past :slung
*) Past Part : slung

*) Present : Slink
*) Past : slunk
*) Past part : slunk

*) Present : Smite
*) Past : smote
*) Past part : smitten

*) Present : Sow
*) Past : sowed
*) Past part : sown

*) Present : Speak
*) Past : spoke
*) Past Part : spoken

*) Present : Spin
*) Past : spun, span
*) Past part : spun

*) Present : Spit
*) Past : spat
*) Past Part : spat, spit

*) Present : Spring
*) Past : sprang
*) Past Part : sprung

*) Present : Stand
*) Past : stood
*) Past part : stood

*) Present : Steal
*) Past : stole
*) Past part : stolen

*) Present : Stick
*) Past : stuck
*) Past part : stuck

*) Present : Sting
*) Past : stung
*) Past part : stung

*) Present : Strike
*) Past : struck
*) Past part : struck, stricken                     
                                    
*) Present : String        
*) Past : strung          
*) Past Part : strung
                                   
*) Present : Strive          
*) Past : strove          
*) Past Part : striven
                                    
*) Present : Swear        
*) Past : swore          
*) Past Part : sworn
                                   
*) Present : Swim          
*) Past : swam          
*) Past Part : swum
                                   
*) Present : Swing         
*) Past : swung         
*) Past Part : swung
                                    
*) Present : Take          
*) Past : took             
*) Past Part : taken
                                    
*) Present : Tear           
*) Past : tore             
*) Past Part : torn
                                    
*) Present : Thrive       
*) Past : throve         
*) Past Part : thriven
                                    
*) Present : Throw        
*) Past : threw          
*) Past Part : thrown
                                    
*) Present : Tread         
*) Past : trod           
*) Past Part : trodden,trod
                                    
*) Present : Wake         
*) Past : woke          
*) Past Part : waked
                                    
*) Present : Wear          
*) Past : wore          
*) Past Part : worn
                                   
*) Present : Weave        
*) past : wove         
*) past Part : woven
                                   
*) Present : Win           
*) Past : won            
*) Past Part : won
                                    
*) Present : Wind         
*) Past : wound       
*) Past part : wound
                                    
*) Present : Wring        
*) Past : wrung         
*) Past Part : wrung
                                    
*) Present : Write        
*) Past : wrote         
*) Past Part : written





(1) *) Beholden means obliged.It is archaic.
     
     *)  Bid(Past Tense and Past Participle) means to offer a certain  price as
           at an auction.
     
     *) Bounden,.cloven,.drunken,.gotten,.hidden,.shrunken,.sunken,.stricken are
         now chiefly used as Verbal Adjectives only,and not as parts of some
         tense;as,

        




       VERBAL ADJECTIVES                         PAST PARTICIPLES
     
      >) Your bounden duty.                     >) You are bound by your promise.
      >) A drunken driver.                        >) The driver was drunk.
      >) Cloven hoofs.                               >) You have cleft my heart in two.
      >) Ill-gotten wealth.                          >) He has got my letter.
      >) Some hidden meaning.                >) Her meaning is hid(or hidden).
      >) A shrunken body.                        >) The cloth has shrunk in water.
      >) Sunken eyes.                               >) The ship has sunk.
      >) A stricken deer.                           >) I was struck by her appearance.




(2) Some Verbs have double forms;as,

    >) Awake                         >) awoke                 >) awaked,awoke
    >) Crow                           >) crowed,crew       >) crowed
    >) Hang                            >) hung                    >) hung
    >) Hang
       (to hang a person)        >) hanged                >) hanged
    >) Lie (recline)                 >) lay                      >) lain
    >) Lie (to speak falsely)   >) lied                      >) lied
    >) Wake                          >) woke(waked)      >) waked(woke)

            





                            2.LIST OF WEAK VERBS


271. The following is the list of Weak verbs.It does not include those Verbs
        which form their Past Tense and Past Participle by adding -d or -ed.


*) Present : Bereave            
*) Past : bereft               
*) Past part : bereft
     
*) Present : Beseech             
*) Past : besought          
*) Past Part : besought
     
*) Present : Bleed                 
*) Past : bled                  
*) Past Part : bled
     
*) Present : Breed                
*) Past : bred                  
*) Past Part : bred
  
*) Present : Bring
*) Past : brought
*) Past Part : brought

*) Present : Build
*) Past : built
*) Past Part : built

*) Present : Burn
*) Past : burnt
*) Past Part : burnt

*) Present : Buy
*) Past : bought
*) Past Part : bought
   
*) Present : Catch                
*) Past : caught              
*) Past Part : caught
     
*) Present : Creep                
*) Past : crept                 
*) Past part : crept
     
*) Present : Dare                  
*) Past : dared                
*) Past part : dared
     
*) Present : Deal                  
*) Past : dealth                
*) Past Part : dealth
     
*) Present : Dream              
*) Past : dreamt               
*) Past Part : dreamt
     
*) Present : Dwell                
*) Past : dwelt                  
*) Past part : dwelt
     
*) Present : Feed                 
*) Past :fed                       
*) Past Part : fed
     
*) Present : Feel                  
*) Past : felt                      
*) Past Part : felt
     
*) Present : Flee                  
*) Past : fled                     
*) Past Part : fled
     
*) Present : Gild                  
*) Past : gilded,gilt           
*) Past part : gilded,gilt
     
*) Present : Gird                 
*) Past : girded,girt          
*) past part : girded,girt
     
*) Present : Have                
*) Past : had                      
*) Past part : had
     
*) Present : Hear                
*) Past : heard                   
*) Past part : heard
     
*) Present : Keep                
*) Past : kept                     
*) Past part : kept
     
*) Present : Kneel               
*) Past : knelt                    
*) Past part : knelt
     
*) Present : Lay                  
*) Past : laid                      
*) Past part : laid
     
*) Present : lead                  
*) Past : led                       
*) Past part : led
     
*) Present : Leap                
*) Past : leapt                    
*) Past Part : leapt
     
*) Present : Learn               
*) Past : learnt                  
*) Past part : learnt
     
*) Present : Leave               
*) Past : left                      
*) Past Part : left
     
*) Present : Lend                 
*) Past :  lent                     
*) Past part : lent
     
*) Present : Light                
*) Past : Lighted,lit           
*) Past Part : lighted ,lit
     
*) Present : Lose                 
*) Past : lost                      
*) Past part : lost
     
*) Present : Make               
*) Past : made                   
*) Past Part : made
     
*) Present : Mean                
*) Past : meant                 
*) Past Part : meant
     
*) Present : Meet                 
*) Past : met                     
*) Past part : met
     
*) Present : Pay                   
*) Past : paid                    
*) Past Part : paid
     
*) Present : Rend                 
*) Past : rent                    
*) Past part : rent
     
*) Present : Say                   
*) Past : said                     
*) Past Part : said
     
*) Present : Seek                 
*) Past : sought                 
*) Past part : sought
     
*) Present : Sell                   
*) Past : sold                     
*) Past Part : sold
     
*) Present : Send                 
*) Past : sent                     
*) Past Part : sent
     
*) Present : Sew                  
*) Past : sewed                  
*) Past Part : sewn
     
*) Present : Shoe                 
*) Past : shod                    
*) Past Part : shod
     
*) Present : Show                
*) Past : showed                
*) Past Part : shown
     
*) Present : Sleep                
*) Past : slept                     
*) Past Part : slept
     
*) Present : Smell                
*) Past : smelt                    
*) Past Part :smelt
     
*) Present : Sow                  
*) Past : sowed                  
*) Past Part : sown
     
*) Present : Speed               
*) Past : sped                     
*) Past part : sped
     
*) Present : Spell                 
*) Past : spelt                    
*) Past part : spelt
     
*) Present : Spend               
*) Past : spent                    
*) Past part : spent
     
*) Present : Spill                  
*) Past : spilt                      
*) Past Part : spilt
     
*) Present : Strew                
*) Past : strewed                
*) Past part : strewn
     
*) Present : Sweep               
*) Past : swept                  
*) Past Part : swept
     
*) Present : Swell                 
*) Past : swelled                 
*) Past Part : swelled,swollen
     
*) Present : Teach               
*) Past : taught                   
*) Past Part : taught
     
*) Present : Tell                   
*) Past : told                       
*) Past Part : told
     
*) Present : Think            
*) Past Part : thought                
*) Past : thought     
     
*) Present : Weep                
*) Past : wept                      
*) Past Part : wept
     
*) Present : Work                
*) Past : wrought,worked   
*) Past Part : wrought,worked
    




272. Here is a list of Verb which have three parts alike :-

     *) Present              *) Past               *) Past part.

           >) Bet                     >) bet                 >) bet
       >) Burst                 >) burst              >) burst
       >) Cast                   >) cast                >) cast
       >) Cost                   >) cost                >) cost
       >) Cut                     >) cut                 >) cut
       >) Hit                      >) hit                  >) hit
       >) Hurt                   >) hurt                >) hurt
       >) Let                     >) let                   >) let
       >) Put                     >) put                  >) put
       >) Read                  >) read                >) read
       >) Rid                     >) rid                  >) rid
       >) Set                     >) set                   >) set
       >) Shed                  >) shed                >) shed
       >) Shut                   >) shut                >) shut
       >) Slit                     >) slit                  >) slit
       >) Split                   >) split                 >) split
       >) Spread               >) spread             >) spread
       >) Thrust               >) Thrust             >) thrust

                



                                              CORRECT USAGE

273. Study the use of the following Verbs :--

(1) Bore,borne. Where bear refers to birth the Past Partciple is born;but where
      bear means to carry away,the Past Partciple is borne.

     >) He was born to lead a life of splendour and shame.
     >) He was born in 1980.
     >) The prize was borne away by a young lad of fifteen.
     >) The load was borne by the ass with great difficulty.




(2) Hanged,hung. When hang refers to the hanging or capital  punishment given to
                              someone,the Past tense is hanged and the past Partciple hanged.
                              in other sense,hung is used for both Past tense and Past Partciple.

     >) They hanged the criminal.
     >) The murderer was hanged.
     >) They hung the pictures on the wall.
     >) The pictures were hung by them on the wall.





(3) Lie,lay. To lay means to put or place something down;to lie means  to rest

      *) To lay                                                      *) To lie
     
      >) Please lay the table.                            >) I always lie on my left side. 
      >) The servant laid the table.                  >) Let him lie there.
      >) The hen has laid five eggs.                 >) He lay there taking his rest.
      >) Slowly and sadly we laid him down.   >) He is lying asleep under the tree.
      >) She laid the book on the table.           >) He lay awake the whole night.
      >) He laid me under obligation.              >) He has lain down to rest.





(4) Rise,raise. Rise means to get up or to come up;..raise means to set up right,
                        to lift,...or to rouse.

              *) To rise                                              *) To raise

      >) The sun rose in the east.                >) The danger raised his spirits.
      >) All rose to receive him.                  >) He raised his hands in prayers.
      >) He has risen from sleep.                 >) He has raised his country.
      >) The barometer has risen.               >) Has anyone raised an objection?






Exercise 84. Fill in the blanks with the Past and Past Participle of the Verbs
                     enclosed in bracktes :--


 1. Bikaner has------into a large and beautiful city (grow).
 2. They have------a new mosque (build).
 3. The murderer was------ (hang).
 4. She has-----down to rest (lie).
 5. The driver was----(drank).
 6. My remarks---her (string).
 7. He was----blind (bear).
 8. He---the pictures on the wall (hang).
 9. I was---in 1950 (bear).
10.She has----three sons (bear).
11.The door---open (fly).
12.Her voice has----the whole world(shake).
13.He---in prayer to God (kneel).


                                14.The kite---gaily into the air (fly).
                                15.He was------dead (strike).
                                16.He has----all his money (lose).
                                17.Wine has-----his tongue (loose).
                                18.The ship -------(sink) and the sailors----(swim) ashore.
                                19.The hen has--five eggs (lay).
                                20.He----the knot with great difficulty (loose).
                                21.He----down under a tree to take a rest (lie).
                                22.His patience was------out at last (wear).
                                23.Trousers are now generally-------(wear).
                                24.Her garments were----in many places (tear).
                                25.They have------him as their President (choose).
                                26.A mad dog----her. She was-----by a mad dog(bite).
                                27.Do as you are---to do.She-----us good-bye with a
                                     sorrowful heart.John-----fifteen thousand rupees
                                     for the car (bid).
                                28.Rice was----by the farmers in the first shower (sow).
                                29.He has-----mad(go).
                                30.Our bugles---truce.The song was-----well( sing).
                                31.The path was---------with flowers (strew).
                                32.We---our enemies in the battle.Our army was---(beat).
                                33. She----a noble life.I have-----a pure life (lead).
                                34.He----hard to win the first prize (strive).
                                35.She----a thousand tears (weep).
                                36.Suddenly the storm---.Every great man or woman has--
                                     by his or her efforts (arise).
                                37.This---him one thousand rupees.Often a lie has---a life
                                      (cost). 







Exercise 85. Which of the two words given in brackets is correct?

 1. You can't   [ a. learn ] a foreign language in a month.
                       [ b. teach ]
  
 2. I   [ a. denied  ] that the statement is true.
         [ b. refused ]

 3. She [ a. made  ] a speech on Independence Day.
            [ b. gave   ]

4. The prisoner was [ a. bound   ] hand and foot.
                                 [b. bounden]

5. The sun [ a. rose  ] in the east.
                  [ b. raised]

6. The ship [ a .sank    ] and all the sailors were [ a . sunk   ]
                   [ b.drowned]                                      [b.drowned]

7. It is our [a.bound     ] duty to help the poor.
                 [b.bounden  ]

8. He would not [a. listen   ] to me.
                           [b. hear    ]

9. The river has [a.overflowed  ] its banks.
                           [b.overflown   ]

10.[ a.See    ] at the map of India.
     [ b. Look]

11. he [a. denied   ] to help me.
           [b.refused  ]

12. I [a. advice    ] you to work hard.
        [b. advise     ]

13. [ a. Practise  ] makes one perfect.
      [ b.Practice   ]

14. He has not yet [a replied    ] to my letter.
                              [b.answered]

15. The murderer gas [a .fled   ] to Bangladesh.
                                    [b.flown ]




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