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Wednesday, December 15, 2010

THE ADVERB ( 15 )





                             CHAPTER-29

300. An Adverb (according to the definition generally given) qualifies a
       Verb,an Adjective,or other Adverb;as,

       >) He walks slowly.                     [Slowly qualifies the Verb walks.]
       >) The mango was very sweet.     [Very qualifies the Adjective sweet.]
       >) The snake creeps very silently.[Very qualifies the Adverb silently.]

                   *) KINDS OF ADVERBS

301. There are three differnt kinds of Adverbs :-

        1.) Simple.     2.) Interrogative.      3.) Relative.

                     1. Simple Adverbs

302. The Simple Adverbs can be divided into the following classes :--
       
(1) Adverbs of Manner, telling how or in what manner;as,
      >) He fought bravely.
      >) She behaved foolishly.
      >) She acted wisely.
      >) He walked slowly.
      >) The baby sleeps soundly.
      >) The boy laughs loudly.

(2) Adverbs of Place,telling where;as,
      >) She was sitting here.
      >) Rama lived there.
      >) There is air everywhere.
      >) My mother is out.
      >) The little children ran hither and thither.
      >) Hope looks above,doubt looks below.

(3) Adverbs of Time,telling when;as,
      >) I saw her yesterday.
      >) I have seen her before.
      >) He comes here daily.
      >) I shall soon return.
      >) There is no sun today.
      >) It is healthy to rise early.
      >) It can never be.
      >) She arrived late.

(4) Adverbs of Number,telling how often;as,
      >) He is always late.
      >) He often comes here.
      >) I called her again.
      >) I saw her thrice.
      >) She seldom dances.
      >) You did love me once.

(5) Adverbs of degree,or Quantity,telling how much or in what degree;as,
      >) I was very tired.
      >) He is entirely deaf.
      >) It is altogether wrong.
      >) I am rather busy.
      >) The mango is almost ripe.
      >) He is fully prepared.
      >) He is partly right.
      >) He is nearly exhausted.

(6)  Adverbs of Reason.
      >) He was therefore fined.
      >) She therefore refused to go.

(7) Adverbs of Affirmation or Negation  .
      >) Surely he is wrong.
      >) He did not come after all.
      >) Probably he will go.
      >) He is certainly alive.

                  *) FORMATION OF ADVERBS

303 Adverbs of Manner are mostly formed from Adjectives by adding -ly;as,

>) kind  ,         kindly
>) Brave ,      bravely
>) Wise,        wisely
>) Quick,      qucikly
>) Quite ,      quietly
>) Nice   ,      nicely
>) Fine   ,      finely
>) Rude ,      rudely
>) Polite,      politely
>) Sincere,    sincerely
>) Foolish ,   foolishly
>) Affectionate, affectionately     




*) When the Adjective ends in y preceded by a consonant,change y into
     and add -ly;as,
    
    >) Happy    :   happily
    >) Merry     :   merrily
    >) Heavy     :   heavily
    >) Easy       :   easily
    >) Ready     :   readily
    >) Steady    ;    steadily
    >) Angry     :   angrily
    >) Pretty     :   prettily

But the following Adjectives form their Adverbs as shown below :--
    >) True  :  truly
    >) Noble:  nobly
    >) Simple: simply
    >) Single:  singly
    >) Double:doubly
    >) Whole : wholly
    >) Final   : finally
    >) Beautiful : beautifully
    >) Cruel : cruelly
    >) Careful : Carefully
    >) Annual : annually
    >) Immediate : immediately

Exercise 91. Pick out Adverbs in the following sentences,and say what kind of
                   Adverb is :--

    1. They were talking loudly.
    2. She has been shamefully treated.
    3. He spoke very angrily.
    4. They were kindly received.
    5. Do not walk so fast.
    6. Once or twice I met her there.
    7. Today I got up very early.
    8. he is going to delhi shortly.
    9. We searched for it everywhere,but could not find it anywhere.
  10. She will return soon.
  11. She sometimes comes here.
  12. They often come home late.
  13. She frequently visits us.
  14. I seldom see her now.
  15. The soldiers marched forward.
  16. Come in; it is hot outside.
  17. She acted somewhat foolishly.
  18. He answered rather rudely.
  19. You are quite wrong.
  20. The jug is full enough.
  21. You walk too quickly for me.
  22. I did it once,but I will not do it again.
  23. She writes well.
  24. He hit the ball hard.
  25. Have you ever seen a ballon go up?
  26. My father has gone out just now.
  27. The servant has gone upstairs.
  28. Work hard or you'll be kept in.
  29. The holidays will begin tomorrow.
  30. Lately he has become lazy.
  31. Formerly they lived in Bombay.
  32. Obey me instantly.
  33. You are late again.
  34. I shall see you afterwards.
  35. These mangoes are almost ripe.

Exercise 92. Fill in the bblanks with the correct Adverbs formed  from the
                   Adjectives given in the brackets :--

1. The trader spoke very------(angry).
2. He drives the motor-car very------(skilful).
3. She is----dressed.(pretty).
4. He was-----fined. (heavy)
5. Fees are charged-----.(annual)
6. She has been-----treated.(shameful)
7. ------he escaped unhurt.(lucky)
8. -----she is mistaken.(probable)
9. The Rajputs fought-------.(brave)
10. We---have breakfast at eight.(usual)
11. They treated her very-----.(cruel)
12. Please work less----.(noisy)
13. She writes quite------.(beautiful)
14. The minister served the king-----.(loyal)
15. He works------well.(remarkable)
16. Her statement is-------devoid of truth.(whole)
17. We----accepted her offer.(ready)
18. The children played------in the park.(merry)
19. He is-----a great leader.(real)
20. Come here------.(immediate)
21. She works-------.(steady)
22. Thus----rolls their world away.(idle)
23. He writes------.(legible)
24. They lived-----together for many years.(happy)
25. Tell me-------.(true)

            2. Interrogative Adverbs

304. Interrogative Adverbs are those which are used for asking questions :--

(1) Interrogative Adverbs of Quality or Manner.
     >) How (in what manner) did he manage this?
     >) How(In what state of health) are you today?

(2) Interrogative Adverbs of place.
     >) Where does he live?
     >) When has he come?

(3) Interrogative Adverbs of Time.
     >) When will she return?
     >) How long will he stay here?

(4) Interrogative Adverbs of Number.
     >) How many girls were present there?
     >) How often did she visit you?

(5) Interrogative Adverbs of Quantity or Degree.
     >) How far is the repot true?
     >) How much did she take?

(6) Interrogative Adverbs of Reason.
     >) Why are you late?Wherefore did she weep?

             3. RELATIVE ADVERBS

305. The Relative Adverbs are those which not only modify some word in
       the clause but also connect the clause in  which they occur with the rest
       of the sentence.The Antecedent Noun to which they relate may be either
       omitted or expressed.

       (1) The Antecedent omitted;as,
             >) This is where [=the place in which] the prince lived.
             >) Do you know when[=the time by which] she will come?

       (2) The Antecedent expressed;as,
             >) This is the place where the prince lived.
             >) Do you know the time when she will come?

306. Some Adverbs have the same form as the corresponding Adjectives;as,

        *) Adjective                                      *) Adverb

 1. He has enough milk.                      1. He has slept enough.
 2. There is much milk in the jug.       2. He is much better today
 3. It was a long story.                        3. She waited long.
 4. She spoke in a loud voice.              4. She spoke loud.
 5. Iron is a hard metal.                      5. He worked hard.
 6. He is her only son.                        6. I can only write.
 7. He gave a quick  reply.                  7. He came quick.
 8. He is an early riser.                       8. He came early.
 9. He is a fast bowler.                        9. He runs very fast.
10.Face every little difficulty.            10. He likes him little.

307. Some Adverbs have two forms which have different meanings:as,
       >) He found the road easy [i.e.,not difficult to walk on].
       >) He found the road easily [i.e.,found it without difficulty].
       >) Mohan works hard [=diligently].
       >) Mohan hardly [=sacrcely] works.
       >) She came late[= not in time].
       >) Hari came lately [recently].
       >) The station is quite near [not far away].
       >) Sita and Kamla are nearly [closely] related.

          *) COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

308. Many Adverbs can be compared like Adjectives.The Degree of
       Comparison are formed by :--

(1) Adding -er for the Comparative and -est for the Superlative,if the Adverb is
     of one syllable;as,

     Positive                 Comparative                Superlative

  *) Fast                     *) faster                         *) fastest
  *) Late                    *) later                           *) latest or last
  *) Near                    *) nearer                        *) nearest
  *) Soon                   *) sooner                       *) soonest
  *) Long                   *) longer                        *) longest

>) Sam walk fast. (positive)
>) Sami walk faster. (Comparative)
>) Taqi walk fastest of all. (Superlative)

(2) Adding more for the Comparative and most for the Superlative before the
     Positive;as,

    *) Gently              *) more gently       *) most gently
    *) Swiftly              *) more swiftly      *) most swiftly
    *) Happily            *) more happily     *) most happily
   
   >) The sparrow flies swiftly. (positive)
   >) The hawk flies more swiftly than the sparrow. (Comparative)
   >) Pigeons fly most swiftly of all birds. (Superlative)

NOTE:-But early,earlier,earliest.
  
   >) Bali got up early this morning.
   >) Ashok got up earlier.
   >) Raman got up earliest of all.

(3) Some Adverbs are compared in an irregular way;as,

   *) Ill or badly       *) worse      *) worst
   *) Well                 *) better      *) best
   *) Much               *) more       *) most
   *) Nigh or near    *) nearer     *) next
   *) Little               *) less          *) least
   *) Far                  *) farther     *) farthest
   *) Forth              *) further     *) furthest
  
>) Leela writes well.(Positive)
>) Meera writes better than Leela. (Comparative)
>) Rajni writes best of all.  (Superlative)

           *) POSITION OF ADVERBS

309. Adverbs are usually places---

(1) Before Adjectives or other Adverbs ;as,
     >) Kamla sings very sweetly.
     >) It is very hot today.

(2) After Intransitive Verbs;as,
     >) He spoke loudly.
     >) She came late.
     >) He slept soundly.
     >) He died cheerfully.

(3) After the Object of a Transitive Verb;as,
     >) He did his duty carefully.
     >) He attacked his enemy boldly.

(4) Between the Principal verb and the Auxiliary or between two Auxiliaries;as,
     >) He is highly honoured.
     >) He has readily consented.
     >) We shall certainly miss her.
     >) He has often told me this.

310. Only,merely,solely,chiefly are generally placed immediately before the word
        they modify.Note how the meaning of a sentence changes according to the
        position of only.

    >) Only he gave me ten rupees. [i.e., He and nobody else gave me.]
    >) He only gave me ten rupees.
            [i.e.,He merely gave ten rupees and did nothing else for me.]
    >) He gave only me ten rupees.
           [i.e.,He gave ten rupees to me and to nobody else.]
    >) He gave me only ten rupees.
           [i.e.,He gave ten rupees to me,and nothing more.]

Here are a few sentences corrected :--

    >) Arsalan only passed in the First Division.
          [Say---Only Ashok passed in the First Division.]

   >) I only sing when my husband is here.
         [Say---I sing only when my husband is here.]

   >) I only learnt two chapters.
         [Say---I learnt only two chapters..]

   >) I only met her once.
         [Say---I met her only once.]

311. The Adverbs always,never,often,ever,generally,rarely,frequently,seldom
        sometimes ,are placed before the Verbs they modify.

      Subject    Adverb of Frequency(A.F)    Verb,etc.

>) The sun            always                         rises in the east.
>) Mr Green         occasionally                goes to the cinema.
>) He                    never                          does anybody wrong.
>) My brother       rarely                         writes to me.
>) We                    generally                    have breakfast at eight.
>) She                   usually                       cycles to school.
>) She                   sometimes                  goes to bed very late.
>) We                   frequently                   visited her.
>) He                    seldom                       comes late.
>) He                    often                          talks stuff and nonsense.
>) Nothing            ever                           happens by chance.

312. This table shows Adverbs of Frequency placed after the anomalous
        finites.

Subject+A.F.+not     Adverb of Frequency

>) I am                     always                             at home on Sundays.
>) He is                    never                               at home on Sundays.
>) You can               hardly ever                      understand her ways.
>) Do you                often                                go to the cinema?
>) They don't           often                               go to bed late.
>) She doesn't          usually                            come late,does she?
>) You should          always                             try to be punctual
>) She will                occasionally                    visit her lover.
>) She has                never                               had a holiday.
>) We                       generally                         go there in time.
>) Will she               ever                                 learn anything useful?
>) I have                  rarely                              seen better work.
>) You must            never                               tell a lie again
>) You can              seldom                             see her smoking.

313. This table illustrates these Adverbs of Frequency in the pre-finite positions.

Subject                    Adverb of Frequency          Finite Verb,etc.

>) She                       almost                          reached the station in time.
>) They                     already                         know all about it.
>) Her employers      even                             offered her higher wages.
>) She                       hardly                          liked to ask for higher wages.
>) He                        just                              caught the train.
>) Mr Black             merely                           hinted at the possibility.
>) We                       nearly                           missed the bus.
>) I                          only                               wanted to know the time.
>) I                          quite                              understand.
>) We                       rather                            like it.
>) They                    soon                              got to their journey's end.
>) She                      still                                hopes to get good news of him.
>) I                          hardly                            know what to do.
>) She                      quite                              forgot to bring her purse.

314. This table illustrated these Adverbs of Frequency in the post-finite
        position.

       Subject           A.F(+not)   Adverb of FreqNon-Finite Verb,etc.

>) I                        have             almost              finished.
>) The postman     has               already              left.
>) We                    have              also                  visited Delhi.
>) They                 didn't            even                  try to help!
>) I                       need              hardly               say that she did well.
>) We                    had               just                   finished breakfast.
>) She                   has                quite                 recovered from her illness.
>) They                 will                soon                 be there.
>) We                    are                still                   writing.
>) She                   would            rather               stay at home.

315. The Adverb enough is always placed after the Adjective which is modifies.

       >) He was foolish enough to offend her.
       >) He was rash enough to strike her.
       >) He was clever enough to see through her game.

     *) SPECIAL USES OF SOME ADVERBS

316. Too,very.The Adverb too means excess of some kind or more than  enough.

Example:-I am too tired to finish the work means that
                  [I am so tired that I cannot finish the work.]

       1. It is too hot to go outside.(Not ,very hot to go outside).
       2. It is very hot today.          (Not,too hot today).
       3. I was very pleased when I heard the news.(Not,too pleased).
       4. The news is too good to be true. (Not,very good).
       5. My heart is too full of words.
       6. She talks too much.(She talk more than she should).
       7. We are very late,but not too late to catch the train.
       8. I am very tired,but not too tired to walk a little further.
       9. Ali was too frightened to speak.
     10. The rose is too beautiful        }
           Sugar is too sweet.                } <- all these sentences yse very instead of too).
           My son's health is too good.}

317. Fairly,rather.Both mean 'moderately',but fairly is chiefly used with 'favourable'
        Adjectives and Adverbs (e.g.,good,bravely,well,nice,etc.) while rather is chiefly
        used before 'unfavourable' Adjectives and Adverbs (e.g.,bad,stupidly,ugly,etc.)

        >) Ashok is fairly clever,but his brother is rather stupid.
        >) He is fairly rich,but his uncle is rather poor.
        >) You did fairly well in your examination,but your sister did rather badly.
        >) This book is rather heavy,but that one is fairly light.
        >) We're rather late,let us hurry.
        >) The train is fairly fast;it gets there in one hour.
        >) You have given me rather a lot;i don't think I can eat so much.

318. Much,very.Note their following uses :--

(1) Much qualifies Adjectives or Adverbs in the Comparative Degree;Very in the
      Positive Degree;as,
      >) He is much better to-day.He came very slowly.

(2) Much is used before Past Participles;very before Present Participles;as
      >) I was much surprised to learn this.
      >) This news is very annoying.

(3) Very is often used before an Adjective in the Superlative Degree for the sake
     of emphasis;as,
      >) She is the very best singer here.

319. So and quite should not be used in the sense of very;as,
       >) He is so rich.          [Say very.]
       >) He was so gloomy. [Sat very.]
       >) I was quite tired.    [Say very.]

320. Before ,ago.Before as an Adverb means formerly,or on a former occasion;as,
        >) He did that once before.
        >) I never saw her before.
        >) I never before saw such a pleasing picture.

Ago means from the present time dating backwards;as,
        >) My father died three years ago [=from now]

                    *) CORRECT USAGE

321. Study the following sentences :--

            Incorrect                                                Correct

1. He seldom or ever tells a lie.             1. He seldom or never tells a lie.
2. I don't want nothing.                        2. I don't want anything.
3. He has not got no pen.                     3. She has not got any pen.
4. You will pay dear for your                4. You will pay dearly for your
    foolishness.                                           foolishness.
5. He has been absent from school       5. He has been absent from school
    from last Saturday.                              since Saturday last.
6. This tastes well.                                 6. This tastes good.
7. The rose smells sweetly.                    7. The rose smells sweet.
8. He was much sorry.                          8. He was very sorry
9. I am much pleased to see you.          9. I am very pleased to see you.
10.He was very respected.                   10. He was much respected.

322. Two Adverbs sometimes go together,joined by the Conjunction and ;as,

    >) You must read this book again and again (repeatedly).
    >) You will realize your mistake by and by (later on).
    >) They searched far and wide (everywhere) for the missing child.
    >) People came from far and near (everywhere) to hear the famous
         back-singer.
    >) The children ran here and there (in various places).
    >) She visits us now and then (occasionally).
    >) He works off and on (not regularly) on his Anglo-Hindi
        Dictionary.
    >) He's a scoundrel out and out (thoroughly).
    >) I've warned you over and over again (reapeatedly;many times) not to
         do that.
    >) The waiters get good tips over and above (besides;in addition to) their
         wages.
    >) He's a reliable man through and through (completely).
    >) He walked to and fro (backwards and forwards),sunk in deep thought.

Exercise 93. In each of the following sentences there are three answers marked
          A,B and C.Only one of these answers is correct.Write the letter of the
          correct answer in the brackets provided.

        (A) very                         (B) much                  (c) too

1. It is-----hot today.
2. I was------pleased when I heard the news.
3. The patient is-----better today.
4. He was------respected.
5. He is-----rich,yet he is-------discontented.
6. She was----frightened to speak.
7. I am----glad to see you in such good health.
8. The news is----good to be true.
9. It is------hot to go outside.
10. Fruit is------cheap today.
11. Honey is------sweet.
12. She is-----tired.
13. I am------richer than he is.
14. They were all------ glad when she came back.
15. They were----alarmed at the bad news.

Exercise 94. Rewrite the following sentences,using the word in brackets in
                    its proper place :--

1. He has hurt any person (never).
2. She has come in(just).
3. He did well in the examination(fairly).
4. He hasn't finished (yet).
5. I am late for my lectures (often).
6. He gets up at six (usually).
7. I have been told that (often).
8. The film was good (fairly).
9. I know her well (quite).
10. He was tall to reach the shelf(enough).
11. This exercise is bad (rather).
12. The train is fast (fairly).
13. He was brave to defy his employer (enough).
14. I have any money (hardly).
15. The bottle is full (quite).
16. We are late,let us hurry (rather).
17. We lost the match (nearly).
18. We deceive ourselves (sometimes).
19. He avoids bad companions (generally).
20 He makes a mistake (rarely).

       

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