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Monday, December 20, 2010



340. Read the following sentences :--
         1. She came and sat beside her hsuband.
         2. Take it or leave it.
         3. It was a case of a miser and his money.
         4. Did you know that she was my sister?
         5. Make hay while the sun shines.
         6. I cannot see how she can win.

        >) All the italicized words are called Conjunction because they join together
             words and sometimes sentences.

        >) In sentences 1 and 2 ,the Conjunction and and or join together the clauses that
             are independent of each other, i.e., are of equal rank.Such Conjucntions are
             called Co-ordinating Conjunctions.

NOTE:--In sentence 3,the Conjunction and joins together two words
              miser and money.

       >) In sentences 4,5, and 6 ,the Conjunctions that,while and how join clauses of
            unequal rank.One is the main or independent clause,the other is a clause
            depending on or limiting the main clause.Such Conjunctions are called
            Subordinating Conjunctions.

                   1. Co-ordinating Conjunctions

341. Co-ordinating Conjunctions are of four kinds :--
(1) Cumulative or Copulative,By these one statement or fact is simply added to
      >) And.----Trust in God and do the right.
      >) Both..and.--He was both fined and imprisoned.
      >) As well as.--He as well as his brother is intelligent.
      >) Not only..but also.----He was not only fined but also imprisoned.

(2) Alternative or Disjunctive. By these an alternative or choice is offered
                                                      between one statement and another;as,
     >) Either ...or.---Either he is a fool or he is a rouge.
     >) Neither...nor.----Neither a borrower nor a lender be.
     >) Or----She must weep or she will die.
     >) Otherwise,else-----Work hard,else(or otherwise) you will not pass.

(3) Adversative.These Conjunctions express opposition or constrast between two
                             statement ;as,
     >) But.--He is slow but he is steady.
     >) Still,yet-----He is very rich,still(or yet) he is not contented.
     >) Nevertheless.--He had no chance of success;nevertheless he tried.
     >) Whereas,while.--Wise men love virtue;whereas(or while) fools shun it.

(4) Illative.---By these Conjunctions one statement or fact is inferred or proved
                        from another;as,
     >) Therefore.----He was found stealing;therefore he was fined.
     >) So,consequently.--He did not work;so(or consequently) he failed.
     >) For.--He will pass;for he works very hard.

                 2. Subordinating Conjunctions

342. There are eight kinds of Subordinate Conjunctions:--

(1) Time.
  >) He died                       before he reached thirty.
  >) Wait                            till(or until) I return.
  >) I returned                   after he had gone.
  >) I will leave                  as soon as you come.
  >) The sun will rise         while the world lasts.
  >) His name will live       so long as the world lasts.
  >) It happened                 when I was in Bombay.
  >) He entered                  as the clock struck eleven.

                                    (2) Cause or Reason.
                                     >) I love her                    because she loves me.
                                     >) I will go there             since you desire it.
                                     >) Let us go to bed          as it is twelve.

                                    (3) Result or Consequence.
                                     >) She wept so much           that she fell ill.                 
                                    >) He was so intelligent      that he won the first prize.
                                    (4)  Purpose.
                                     >) We eat                            that we may live.
                                     >) He worked hard             so that he might pass.
                                     >) Walk carefully                lest you should fall.
                                     >) He works hard                in order that he may become rich.

                                    (5) Condition.
                                     >) I will dismiss you               if you had late again.
                                     >) I agree to these terms      provided you agree to mine.
                                     >) He ran                               as if he had been shot.
                                     >) You cannot be pardoned  unless you confess your fault.

   (6) Concession or Contrast.
    >) He is an honest man          although he is poor.
    >) He is not contented            though he is very rich.
    >) He will never pass.             however hard he may try.
   (7) Comparision.
   >) He is as clever as I [am].
   >) I like her as much as you [I like you].
   >) He likes me no less than you [he likes you].
   >) He is more clever than you [are].

                            (8) Extent or Manner.
                            >) Men will reap                   as they sow.
                            >) He chose the candidates   according as they were fit.

        But----As men sow(Dependent),so will they also reap(Principal).

                     *) CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

343. Certain Conjunctions are often used in pairs;these are 
        called   Correlative Conjunctions.The commonest are :--

(1) Either...or.
      >) He is either a rouge or a fool.
      >) Either he is mistaken or his mother.

(2) Neither...nor.
     >) He was neither happy nor sad.
     >) He is neither a rogue nor a fool.

(3) Though...yet.
     >) Though he slay me,yet I will trust in Him.
     >) Though he is poor,yet he is contended.

(4) Both...and.
     >) He is both a poet and a philosopher.
     >) We both loved and honoured her.

     >) There is no such country as you mention.
     >) She is not such a woman as you admire.

(6) Such...that.
>)Such was his love for her that he sacrificed even his life for 
    her  sake.

(7) So,
    >) He is not so rich as you think.
    >) It is as clear as the sun.

    >) As you sow,so shall you reap.
    >) As the child is,so is the man.

(9) So...that.
    >) He was so tired that he could not walk any farther.
    >) He was so honest that nothing would tempt him to take the bribe.

(10) Scarcely...when.
     >) He had scarcely recovered from fever when he caught a bad cold.
     >) He had scarcely reached the station when it began to rain.

(11) Not only ...but also
     >) He is not only a priest but also a doctor.
     >) He is not only honest but sincere also.
     >) He visited not only Bombay but also Poona.
     >) Not only does he speak well,but he writes well also.

(12) No sooner...than.
     >) No sooner did the bell ring than the boys left the class.
     >) No sooner had she heard the news than she started off.
     >) No sooner does he arrive than he begins to work.

    *) Some Errors in the Use of Conjunctions

344. When the Correlative Conjunctions either...or...,neither...nor,both...and,
         not only...but also are used,care must be taken to place the first member
        (i.e.,the words either,neither,both,not only) immediately before the words
        that are contrasted.

Incorrect : Your brother was either there or your cousin.
Correct   : Either your brother was there or your cousin [was there].

Incorrect : Neither he is a rogue nor a madman.
Correct   : He is neither a rogue nor a madman.

Incorrect : He both won a prize and a scholarship.
Correct   : He won both a prize and a scholarship.

Incorrect  : Not only he visited Delhi,but also Agra.
Correct     : He visited not only Delhi,but also Agra.

345. Neither is always followed by nor.
        >) I have neither written to her nor(not or) spoken to her.
        >) Neither his sister nor(not or) his mother met me.

346. Scarcely is followed by when,and not by than.
       >) Scarcely had he left when (not than) a storm began to blow.
       >) Scarcely had he reached the station when (not than) the train steamed off.

347. No sooner is followed  by than,and not by but.
      >) No sooner had the fight begun than(not but) he ran away.
      >) No sooner had he left than(not but) he came back again.

348. Than is used as a Subordinating Conjunction.The subordinate sentence
         introduced by than is generally elliptical.So,in order to determine the
         case  of the word than,the ellipsis must be supplied.

Incorrect   : He is stronger than me.
Correct     : He is stronger than I[i.e., than I(am strong)].

Note the difference between these two sentences :--
(1) I love you better than him [=I love you better than(I love) him.]
(2) I love you better than he   [I love you better than he(loves you)].

Also note the following :--

Incorrect  : He is as strong as me.
Correct    : He is as strong as I(am).

Incorrect  : She can jump as high as me.
Correct    :  She can jump as high as I [can jump].

349. Rather and other are followed by than and not by but.

Incorrect   : I would have the watch rather but the pen.
Correct     : I would have the watch rather than the pen.

Incorrect   : She had no other hobby but that of collecting flowers.
Correct     : She had no other hobby than that of collecting flowers.

350. The word without is often wrongly used for unless;as,

Incorrect  : I shall not begin the work without you promise to help me.
Correct    :       {Say---unless in place of without.]

Incorrect  : Without you confess your fault,you shall be fined.
Correct    :        [Say----without in place of without.]

351 . The word like is often wrongly used for as;as,
         >) He did like he was told to do.[Say---as in place of like.]
         >) She dances like her mother does. [Say---as in place of like.]

352. In contracted sentences Conjunctions are often wrongly omitted after

Incorrect   : He is more polite but not so kind-hearted as his father.
Correct     :  He is more polite than,but not so kind-hearted as,his father.

Incorrect  : He is as strong if not stronger than Anil.
Correct     : He is as strong as,if not stronger than Anil.

353. Unless means if not.Hence the word not should  not be introduced in the
        clause beginning with unless.

Incorrect  : Unless you do not work hard,you will fail.
Correct      : Unless you work hard ,you will fail.

Incorrect  : Unless you do not apologize,I shall punish you.
Correct    :  Unless you apologize,I shall punish you.

354 Lest means so that...not,for fear that,and is in modern English followed
       by should.
       >) Take care lest you should fall.
       >) He ran hard lest he should miss the train.

355. That should never be used before a sentence in the Direct Narration,or
         after a Verb denoting a question in the Indirect Narration.

Incorrect  :  He said that,'I am not feeling well'.
Correct    :  He said,'I am not feeling well'.

Incorrect   : He asked that how I was feeling.
Correct     : He asked how I was feeling.

Incorrect  : He enquired that where was the school.
Correct    : He enquired where the school was.

Incorrect   : He asked me that whether Mohan had gone.
Correct     : He asked me whether Mohan had gone.

356. Since.When it is used as a Conjunction,it is always followed by a Verb
        in the Simple Past.

Incorrect : Three years passed since my cousin has died.
Correct   : Three years have passed since my cousin died.

Incorrect  : A month passed since he is coming here.
Correct    : A month has passed since he came here.

Incorrect  : Two months passed since he had left school.
Correct    : Two months have passed since he left school.

357.Before.When it is used as a Conjunction with reference to some future
       event,it is never followed by a Verb in the future Tense,even if the Verb
       in the Principal Clause is Future.

       Incorrect : The plants will die before the rains will fall.
       Correct    : The plants will die before the rains fall (or have fallen).

Exercise 100. Fill up in the blanks with appropriate Conjunctions :--

1. Love not sleep,----you shoudl come to poverty.
2. Wisdom is better-------rubies.
3. I would rather suffer----apologize.
4. --------you work hard,you will not pass.
5. Many new things have happened-----I came here.
6. Either this boy-------that girl has stolen my watch.
7. No sooner had the train stopped------he stepped out.
8. He is not so clever-----you think him to be.
9. -----you tell me the truth,I shall fine you.
10. Though he is poor--------he is honest.
11. He had scarcely reached the school-----it began to rain.
12. I would rather be a good scholar-------a wealthy prince.
13. She had no other hobby-----that of playing with the affections of her lover.
14. No sooner had he gone to bed------a message was brought in.
15. She is beautiful--------not vain.

Exercise 101. In the following select the clause which  correctly complete the
                       sentences :--

1. He worked hard { a. so that he may become rich.
                                [ b. so that he might become rich.
                                [ c. so that he will become rich.

2. We shall serve you { a . if you will come.
                                    { b. if you come.
                                    { c. if you have come.

3. The train had left { a. when he reached the station.
                                  { b. When he had reached the station.
                                  { c. when he will reach the station.

4. He looks { a. as if he was ill.
                    { b. as if he were ill.
                    { c. as if he had been ill.

5. Though he was poor { a. but he was happy.
                                      { b. yet he was happy.
                                       { c. however he was happy.

6. Walk carefully  { a. lest you will fall.
                              { b. lest you should fall.
                              { c. lest you have fallen.

7. He had visited many towns before { a . he was returning home.
                                                            { b. he had returned home.
                                                            { c. he returned home.

8. You will have reached home before { a. the sun was setting.
                                                              { b. the sun set.
                                                              { c. the sun sets.

9. The fever will go down if { a. you take medicine.
                                              { b. you will take medicine.
                                              { c. you took medicine.

10. Three years have passed since { a. is father has died.
                                                         { b. his father had died.
                                                         { c. his father died.

11. You cannot secure good marks unless { a. you do not work hard.
                                                                     { b. you work hard.
                                                                     { c. you will work hard.

Exercise 102. Join each pair of the following sentences by means of the
                       Conjunction given in brackets :--

1. My father reached the airport.The plane left later.(before)
2. The police arrived.The dacoits had fled by them .(after)
3. The telephone rang often.Each time the receptionist answered it.(whenever)
4. The moment the store opened.Then all the customers rushed in.(as soon as)
5. The Principal was speaking.Everyone was listening carefully.(while)
6. The cock crew.The farmer got up.(when)
7. He ran away.He was afraid.(because)
8. The children danced.The piper played.(while)
9. You have tears.Prepare to shed them now.(if)
10. I came down the street.I met Maria.(as)
11. Make hay.The sun shines.(while)
12. The cat is away.The mice will play.(when)
13. It is raining.I will take an umbrella with me.(since)
14. We were annoyed.We kept quiet.(still)
15. It is time to go.Let us start.(so)
16. I like games.My brother likes reading.(but)
17. I tried hard to pass the examination.I failed.(nevertheless)
18. She was poor.I helped her.(as)
19. I make a promise.I keep it(if)
20. You will fail in the examination.You work hard.(unless)
21. I could not attend the meeting.I was ill.(because)
22. We must take a taxi.We may catch the train.(so that)
23. He did not work hard.He failed.(therefore)
24. He was fined.He was sent to prison.(not only...but also)
25. He does not play hockey.He does not play football.(neither...nor)