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Thursday, February 3, 2011

*) WORDS LIABLE TO BE CONFUSED AND MISUSED

                                        







                                              CHAPTER-40

NOTE:-for beginning chapters search the BLOG ARCHIVE on right side


377. Students are liable to misuse words that are similar in form or sound ,but
        different in meaning.A list of such words as are liable to be confused is
        given below :-- 


1. Accede : consent. ' I cannot accede to your request.'
    Exceed : surpass. 'His expenditure exceeds his income.'


2. Accept : to receive with favour.'I accept your offer.'
    Except : to omit or exclude.'If you will except the last term,I shall accept 
                   the contract.'


3. Access : approach or admission. 'A poor man has no access to the King.'
    Excess : more than enough. ' He smokes to excess.'


4. Adapt : to make suitable;to adjust properly.'We must adapt ourselves to
                                                                              changing circumstances.'
   Adopt : to accept and approve.'They adopted a child.' ' He adopted my scheme.'
   Adept : One who is skilled.'He is and adept in painting.'


5. Advise :(Verb) . 'Please advise me what to do.'
    Advice :(Noun). ' He paid no heed to my advice.'


6. Affect : (1) to influence.'Bad weather affects her health.'
                 (2) to pretend. 'Beginners often affect learning.'
  
   Effect : (1) Verb. 'The prisoner effected(made) his escape.'
                (2) Noun. 'What will be the effect(result) of this?'


7. Allusion : an indirect reference.'If your allusion is to any woman present
                                                         here,please name her.'
    Illusion : an imaginary appearance.'A mirage is an optical illusion.'


8. Altar : a place for offerings. 'The pious old man bowed before the altar.'
    Alter : to change.'Nothing can alter my decision.'


9. Antic : odd.'We laughed at her antic gestures.'
    Antique : old-fashioned.'We laughed at her antique dress.'


10. Ascent : going upwards.'The balloon is on the ascent.'
      Assent : agree;consent.'I cannot assent to your proposal.'






11. Aught : anything.'For aught I know,she is innocent.'
      Ought : should. 'We ought to respect our parents.'


12. Bail : security.'He was released on bail.'
      Bale: bundle. 'Fifty bales of cotton were burnt.'


13. Berth : a sleeping place in a train or on a ship.
                 'I got a berth reserved for me in the first class compartment.'
     Birth : 'She gave birth to a child.'


14. Bear : endure.'I cannot bear this insult.'
      Bare : uncover.'She bared her bosom to the moon.'


15. Born : (Past Participle of bear).'He was born on Tuesday.'
      Borne : carried.'The message was borne to her.'


16. Canon : rule.'Every nation has its own canons of morality.'
      Cannon : a large gun.'Cannon to the left of them,cannon to the right
                      of them.'


17. Canvas : a kind of coarse cloth.'Shoes made of canvas are not durable.'
      Canvass : solicit votes.'Will you canvass votes for me?'


18. Casual : occasional;irregular.'casual reading is better than no reading.'

      Causal : relating to cause. 'The casual connection between food and
                                                    health.'


19. Censor : to subject to an official examiner.'The news is censored'
      Censure : to criticize adversely.'They censured her conduct bitterly.'


20. Cession : the transfer of territory by one country to another. 'Nothing short
                       of the cession of the territory would satisfy the invader.'
      Session : a term or a meeting period,as of a court,a legislature,or 
                      any organized assembly.'The winter session of the Assembly
                      is over.'


21. Cite : to quote. 'He cited verses from the Bible.'
      Site : a place chosen for some special purpose.
                'The site for the school building was selected by the Headmaster.'
      Sight : view.'A horrible sight met our gaze.'


22. Coarse : rough. 'He wears coarse clothes.'
      Course : direction. 'She has taken a wrong course (path).'


23. Compliment : regard. 'Tender my best compliments to your wife.'
      Complement : that which makes up. 'My work is a complement to Mr.Sami's.'


24. Confidant : one who is trusted with a secret.
                         'My confidant betrayed my secret.'
      Confident : sure. 'She is confident of success.'


25. Cord : rope. 'He cut the cord with a knife.'
      Chord : a straight line joining any two points in a curve or a circle;as,
                    'the chord of a circle.'


26. Corporal : relating to the body. 'Corporal punishment in schools must be
                                                            discouraged.'
      Corporeal : relating to matter as opposed to spirit.
                          ' Angels are not corporeal beings.' 


27. Council : an assembly for conference or deliberation.
                     ' He is a member of the Social Welfare Council.'
      Counsel : (1) to advise and instruct :
                            ' Fathers usually  counsel their sons against excess.'
                       (2) advice : a legal adviser or advocate .
                            ' he has engaged a counsel to defend him in the High Court.'


28. Decent : well-behaved and respectable.'She is a decent girl.'
      Descent : derivation : slope, 
                       'Her descent from a noble family was also taken into account.'
                      ' The journey down the descent was easy.' 
      Dissent : disagreement. 'Murmurs of dissent were heard at the meeting.'


29. Deference : respect. 'Treat your elders with deference.'
      Difference : 'There is a great difference between these two statements.'


30. Defy : challenge. 'He defied all authority.'
      Deify : worship. The leader was deified by the  people.'





31. Dependant : subordinate. 'Be kind to your dependants.'
      Dependent : 'He is dependent on his wife.'


32. Deprecate : feel and express disapproval of.
                          ' He deprecates changing  the rules at present.'
      Depreciate : make or become less in value. 'The purchasing power of money
                            has depreciated since she purchased her savings certificates.'


33. Disease : illness. ' Consumption is not a fatal disease.'
      decease : death. 'A severe disease may cause decease.'


34. Dual : double. 'I do not believe in this dual policy of the Government.'
      Duel : a combat between two men.' He fought a duel in his youth.'


35. Dying : (the Present Participle of die).'People are dying of disease every day.'
      Dyeing : (the act of colouring), 'This laundry does cleaning and dyeing.'


36. Elicit : draw out.' I could not elicit any truth from her.'
      Illicit : unlawful. 'Those who carry on illicit trade in opium are liable to be 
                                   prosecuted


37. Elude : to escape. 'He cleverly eluded the police.'
      Allude : to refer to. 'Which is the woman you alluded to in your speech?'


38. Emerge : to come out. 'The swimmer emerged from the water.'
      Immerge : to plunge into. 'The chemist immerged the metal in acid.'


39. Emigrant : a person who leaves one country take up residence in another.
                         'The Irish emigrants settled in Canada.'
      Immigrant : One who comes to one country from another to live there
                           permanently.' Most of the Americans are English immigrants.'


40. Eminent : prominent. 'He is an eminent doctor.'
      Imminent : It applies especially to danger or misfortune that threatens to
                         happen immediately. 'She was saved from imminent death.'


41. Eruption : a violent bursting out.'Many villages were destroyed by an 
                                                            eruption of the volcano.'
      Irruption :a sudden invasion. 'The Chinese irruption into Tibet.'


42. Farther : actual distance or extension in space. 'It is farther from Delhi
                                       to Madras than it is from Delhi to Bombay.'
      Further : something additional in thought. 'They discussed the matter
                                                                              further.'


43. Fare : 'What is the railway fare from Delhi to Bombay?'
      Fair : 'The weather is fair.' 'Her dealings are fair.'


44. Forgo : abstain from ;give up.' I shall forgo the pleasure of that trip.'
      Forego :to go before.' He will follow if you forego.' 'See the foregoing
                                           example.'


45. Gamble : to play for stakes. 'They gambled on the green.'
      Gambol : to play and frolic. 'The lambs are gambolling on the green.'


46. Hoard : store. 'Do not hoard grains in times of war.'
      Horde : (a wandering tribe). 'Wandering hordes attacked villagers huts.'


47. Human : relating to man. 'Human nature cannot stand such insults.'
      Humane : sympathetic;tender-hearted. 'The humane treatment of
                             prisoners is now advocated by all.'


48. Ingenuous : artless;frank;plain.'The ingenuous talk of the child impressed
                                                              us all.'
      Ingenious : skillful.'He is an ingenious mechanic.'


49. Jealous : 'He is jealous(envious) of my reputation.'
      Zealous : ardent;enthusiastic.'She is a zealous worker in the cause of
                                                        Harijan welfare.'


50. Legible : capable of being read. 'She writes a legible hand.'
      Eligible : fit to be chosen. 'He is eligible for the post.'


51. Lightning : 'He was struck by lightning.'
      Lightening : making light. 'I am thinking of lightening your burden.'


52. Loth : unwilling.'The mother was loth to leave her child behind.'
      Loathe : to abhor or hate with extreme disgust.
                     'Most people loathe falsehood.'


53. Loose :to unfasten. 'Loose this knot,please.'
      Lose : to part with something. 'Don't lose your purse.'


54. Metal : 'Platinum is a precious metal.'
      Mettle : spirit;courage. ' I will put your mettle to the test.'


55. Monetary : relating to money.'I have no monetary motives in helping you.'
      Monitory : relating to money. 'He paid no head to the monitory advice of 
                                                          his father.'


56. Naughty : wicked. 'He is a naughty boy.'
      Knotty : difficult to solve. 'This a knotty problem.'


57. Order : command. 'An order must be obeyed.'
      Ardour : fervour;zeal. 'he is full of youthful ardour.'


58. Ordinance : a rule;a law. 'The President has recently issued several new
                                                 ordinances.'
      Ordnance : cannon. 'Ordance were fired at the enemies.'


59. Persecute : to oppress or punish unjustly.
                        ' Many people have been presecuted for their religious belief.'
     Prosecute :  (1) carry on. 'He prosecuted his studies further.'
                          (2) to institute legal proceedings against a person.
                                   'Trespassers will be prosecuted.'
60. Physic : medicine. 'A dose of physic will do you good.'
      Physique : bodily constitution. ' He possesses a healthy  physique.'




61. Populous : full of people ; thickly inhabited. 'Ours is a populous country.'
     Populace : the masses. 'The common populace cheered her.

62. Practice : a thing done again and again. 'Practice makes a man perfect.'
                                                                    ' He is out of practice.'
      Practise : (verb);carry out in action. 'Practise what you preach

63. Precede : to go before. 'Study should precede teaching.'
     Proceed : to continue. 'Let us proceed with the work.'


64. Precedent : previous case taken as example for subsequent cases or as
                          justification.
                             'There is no precedent  for this.'
      President : one who presides at a meeting.
                            'The President delivered his speech in Hindi.'


65. Prescribe : to designate,direct or dictate.
                        'What medicine did the doctor prescribe for her?'
      Proscribe : to prohibit.' The Government has proscribed this book.'


66. Principal : chief of the college,important,main
                           'These are the principal languages of the world.'
                           ' The principal of the college delivered his speech in Hindi.'
                       [ A sum of money is also called the principal as distinguished
                         from the interest.]


67. Raise : to lift. 
                     'She raised her head to see what was happening.'
      Raze  : to level to the ground;to completely destroy. 
                     'The building was razed to the ground.'


68. Refuge : shelter. 
                         'He took refuge in an old house.'
      Refuse : (1) worthless stuff. 
                           'The refuse must be burnt.'
                     (2) not to accept.
                           'She will refuse a gift from you.'


69. Right : 'He knows the right use of words.'
                  'All's right with the world.'
                  ' Might is right.
      Rite : a religious or solemn ceremony.
                  'His funeral rites were performed yesterday.'


70. Route : road ; path; course.
                    'This was the route taken by the traveller.'
      Rout   : the defeat of an army.
                    'The Germans put the English army to rout(utterly defeated).'
      Root   : source or origin. 
                    'Love of money is the root of all evil.'


71. Spacious : roomy. 
                      'This is a spacious house.'
      Specious : plausible ; fair or right on the surface.
                        'I do not believe in his specious argument.'


72. Stationary : fixed. 
                             'The Pole Star is stationary in the heavens.'
      Stationery : writing-materials.
                             'He deals in stationery.'


73. Straight : direct. 
                       ' I went straight to her.'
      Strait     : narrow.
                       'Strait is the gate to heaven.'


74. Team : set of persons working together.
                     'Our cricket team won the match.'
      Teem : full of.
                     'Every leaf teems with life.'


75. Temper : disposition of mind.
                          'He is a man of fiery temper.'
      Tamper : meddle with ; make unauthorised changes in.
                          'After his death,they tampered with his will.'


76. Tenor : settled or prevailing course or direction.
                      'Such was the peaceful tenor of their life.'
      Tenure : period of holding.
                       'During his tenure of office,many strange things happened.'


77. Vain : conceited.
                       'She is quite vain of her beauty.'
      Vein : manner.
                       ' she said this in a humorous vein.'
      Vane : weathercock.
                       ' The vane pointed to the north.'


78. Veil : 'She dropped her veil.'
                'She took the veil.'
                ' Under the veil(disguise) of religion,he practised hypocrisy.'
      Vale : valley.
                   'This was called the happy vale.'


79. Venal : person that may be bought ; one who is ready to sell influence or
                   services or to sacrifice principles from sordid motive.
                          'Was Shylock really a venal soul?'
      Venial : not serious.
                         'The venial slips of youth are excusable.'


80. Wreath : garland.
                          'Her forehead was decked with a wreath of flowers.'
      Wreathe : encircled as with a wreath.
                          'Her face was wreathed in smiles.'


81. Avocation : a subordinate occupation,usually one  pursued for pleasure and
                          pastime rather than for gain.
                          'His avocation is photography.'
     Vocation   : chief occupation .
                         'His vocation is banking; his avocation is painting.'


82. Bridal : concerning marriage.
                    'All the bridal ceremonies are over.'
      Bridle : 'Lay the bridle on the neck of the horse.'


83. Check : control; examine.
                    'I kept her in check.','He checked the accounts.'
      Cheque : 'I gave her a cheque on the State Bank of India for Rs.10,000.'


84. Childish : is used in a bad sense and suggests such as silliness,foolishness,
                      and weakness.
                      'Your talk is becoming childish.'
      Childlike : is used in a good sense and suggests such as innocence,
                        simplicity, and trustfulness.
                       'Her childlike innocence appealed to all.'


85. Conscious : aware.
                          'She is conscious of her faults.'
      Conscientious : obedient to conscience;scrupulous.
                                'He is a conscientious worker and always does his duty.'


86. Contemptuous : showing contempt of ; scornful.
                                 'She  gave a contemptuous reply.'
      Contemptible : deserving contempt ; despicable.
                                'He is a contemptible fellow who does good to no one.'


87. Continual : implies breaks at intervals.
                         'There was continual rain.','We were continually interrupted.'
      Continuous : uninterrupted in time or sequence.
                           'He worked continuously  from morning till night.'


88. Credible : believable.
                       'His report of the accident is credible.'
      Creditable : estimable; that which deserves praise or honour.
                           'She has done a creditable piece of work.'
      Credulous : applies to persons who believe things too readily.
                          'The credulous youth believed  in the existence  of ghosts.'


89. Draft : rough copy of document.
                     'Where is the draft of the Agreement?'
      Draught : the quantity drunk at a time.
                        'O give me a draught of wine.'
      Drought : want of rain.
                        'Owing to the drought a famine was feared.'


90. Healthy : applies to that which is in a state of health.
                      'A healthy body has a healthy mind.'
      Healthful : that which promotes health;as,
                           'healthful food,exercise ,or climate.'


91. Honourable :worthy of honour.
                             'The Prime Minister was an honourable man.'
      Honorary : holding office without receiving any salary.
                            'He was an honorary Magistrate.'


92. Industrial : relating to industry.
                             'There has been much industrial development in India.'
     Industrious : hard-working.
                            'An industrious man cannot starve.'


93. Judicial : applies primarily to judges and formal judgements.
                         'Judicial decisions are all in her favour.'
      Judicious : sensible ; prudent.
                          'He made a judicious selection of books.'


94 . Lovable : worthy of love ;inspiring love.
                          'She is a woman of lovable nature.'
       Lovely : beautiful ;charming.
                         'The lovable girl plucked a lovely flower.'


95. Practical : is opposed to theoretical.
                           'I do not believe in practical jokes.'
                           'Your scheme does not appeal to practical minds.'
      Practicable : that can be done .
                                'Here scheme was not practicable.'
                                'Space communication has proved to be practicable.'


96. Sensible : of good sense ;reasonable.
                         'No sensible man would abuse a girl.'
                         'He was sensible(aware) of your kindness.'
                         ' That is very sensible of him.'
     Sensitive : acutely affected by external impressions.
                           'She is very sensitive to both praise and blame.'


97. Sole : only.
                    'He is the sole proprietor of the firm.'
      Soul : 'We believe in the immortality of the soul.'


98. Unity : oneness.
                       'Work for national unity.'
      Union : being united.
                      'Union is strength.'
      Unison : harmony.
                      'Her voice was in perfect unison with the tune of the piano.'


99. Waive : to forgo voluntarily.
                      ' I have waived my claims in her favour.'
      Wave : 'The boat is tossing on the waves.'
                   'She waved her sword in the air.'


100. Womanly : befitting a woman.
                              'Modesty is a womanly virtue.'
        Womanish : like women(used contemptuously).
                              'It was womanish on his part to shed tears.'




Exercise 119.Which of the two words given in brackets is correct?


1. Do not (lose,loose) your temper.


2. He put her (metal,mettle) to the test.


3. India wants (piece,peace) in the world.


4. The lion is a beast of (pray,prey).


5. He is the (precedent,president) of our club.


6. Our(principal,principle) is a man of (principle,principal).


7. (Practise,Practice) makes a man perfect.


8. We must (practise,practice) what we preach.


9. This is a (knotty,naughty) problem.


10. Let us (precede,proceed) with our work.


11. The building was (raised,razed) to the ground.


12. He took (refuse,refuge) in an old house.


13. Asoka's (rein,reign,rain) was full of peace.


14. His funeral (rights,rites) were performed yesterday.


15. This (root,route)is shorter than that.


16. She leads a (quite,quiet) life.


17. He will go (straight,strait) to the railway station.


18. She is( vain,vein) of her beauty.


19. I passed  my summer(vacation,vocation) in Kashmir.


20. Do not (waist,waste) your time in idle gossip.


21.Prices will( soar,sore) higher.


22. My eyes are(soar,sore).


23. (union,Unity) is strength.


24. Gandhiji worked for the Hindu-Muslim(union,unity).


25. He is a (conscious,conscientious)worker.


26. Your talk is becoming (child-like,childish).


27. The(sole,soul) is immortal.


28. She wears (plain,plane) clothes.


29. A painter is an (artist,artisan).


30. Why don't you get milk  from a (diary,dairy)?


31. All foreign letters are opened by the(censor,censer).


32. You should (cease,seize) the opportunity when it comes.


33. The(cite,site) of our school is very healthy.


34. The danger to our country is(eminent,imminent).


35. The doctors (prescribed,proscribed)some medicine for the patient.


36. You have followed the wrong (course,coarse).


37. What (career,carrier) do you want to follow?


38. He is going to (canvass,canvas) for the Republic candidate.


39. The autumn (session,cession) of Parliament will begin on Monday.


40. He is(eligible,illegible) for the post.






Exercise 120. Select the correct word from the alternatives given in brackets in 
                       the following sentences.


1. Our teacher does not believe in  { a. corporeal  } punishment.
                                                          { b. corporal    }


2. He disliked his { a. childish   } habits.
                              { b. child-like}


3. He is honest, { a. beside  } being hard-working.
                           { b. besides}


4. In the absence of his senior he is the { a. official     } superintendent.
                                                                  { b. officiating}
                                                                  { c. officious  }


5. He is so { a. credible    }  that he readily believes everything that others
    tell him  { b. credulous }
                  { c. creditable }


6. He is a very {a. conscious       } worker.
                         {b. conscientious }


7. India { a. expects   } every man to do his duty.
              { b. hopes     }


8. His paintings show that he is a great {a. artist     }.
                                                             { b. artisan }


9. Long ago a pitched {a. war     } took place between the armies of Porus
    and Alexander.       { b. battle }
                                    { c. fight   }



10. A spark is {a.  momentous   } light.
                      {b. momentary    }


11. This is a poor { a. sight    }  for her house.
                           { b. site      }            
                           { c. cite      }


12. These events happened during Akbar's  { a. rain    }
                                                                     { b. reign  }
                                                                     { c. rein    }


13. Teaching is an { a. honorary      } profession.
                              { b. honourable  }


14. The accused was released on { a. bale  }
                                                     { b. bail   }


15. India won back her { a. Freedom  } on 15th August, 1947.
                                    { b. Liberty    }


16. This is a very { a. Naughty   } problem.
                           { b. knotty      }


17. Edison { a. invented    } the gramophone.
                 { b. discovered }


18. Which is the shortest { a. root   } from delhi to Agra?
                                       { b. rout   }
                                       { c. route }


19. All { a. expect   } Hari were present.
          { b. accept   }
          { c. except   }


20. The funeral { a. rites    } are over now.
                        { b. rights  }
                        { c. writes  }


21. His profession is teaching but his { a. vocation   } is photography.
                                                          { b. avocation }
                                                          { c. vacation   }


22. His father sells  { a. stationary  }.
                              { b. stationery  }


23. Delhi is a { a. popular  } city.
                     { b. populous }
                     { c. populace }


24. He is a man of  { a. principal  }
                              { b. principle  }


25. We believe in the immortality of the { a. sole  }
                                                               { b. soul  }


26. The lion is a beast of  { a. pray  }
                                        { b. prey  }


27. Exercise is { a. beneficent  } to health.
                       { b. beneficial   }


28. He { a. dyed  } his hair.
          { b. died   }


29. He is { a. zealous  } of my reputation.
              { b. jealous   }


30. A tragic { a. accident  } took place yesterday.
                   { b. incident   }


31. She wears { a. loose  } garments.
                       { b. lose    }


32. She comes for a { a. respectful  } family.
                                { b. respectable}


33. He is an { a. imminent  } scientist.
                    { b. eminent    }


34. I cannot  { a. alter   } my programme.
                    { b. altar   }


35. His handwriting is { a. eligible   }
                                   { b. illegible }


36. Man is a { a. social     } animal.
                   { b. sociable }


37. Is that seat  { a. vacant  }?
                        { b. empty  }


38. My father has given his  { a. ascent  }
                                            { b. assent  }
                                            { c. accent  }


39. What is the railway { a fair  } from Delhi to Madras?
                                      {b. fare }


40. { a. Unity   } is strength.
      { b. Union  }
      { c. Unison }









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