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Friday, November 12, 2010







    1) When we speak or write  we use words.We usually use these words in groups.But any 
         group of words will not necessarily express a complete thought

    (*) Example :-the hill went up and Jack Jill

    >) Does this group of words make sense?No,it does not.
    >) Now arrange these words in their proper order and write:
    (*) Example :-Jack and Jill went up the hill.

      This makes complete sense.A group of words that makes complete sense is 
      called a Sentence.


                     (*) KINDS OF  SENTENCE:--

2). Sentences  can do four kinds of things.

*) A sentence can :-

   (1) Make a statement;as,
        >) The sun rises in the east.(Affirmative)
        >) The sun does not move round the earth.(Negative)
       *) A sentence that states or declares  something is called an 
          Assertive or Declarative Sentence.

(2)    Ask a question;as,
         >) Does the sun rise in the east?         
        >) Who does not love his country?
       *) A sentence that asks a question is called an  Interrogative sentence

(3)Express  some command,request,entreaty or wish;as, 
   > Shut the door.(command)            >Lend me your pen,please(Request)
   >Help me,O God(.(Entreaty)          >God save the Queen.(Wish)
    *) A sentence that expresses a command ,a request,an entreaty or a desire is called                             an  Imperative Sentence.

(4)Express some strong or sudden feeling;as,
     *) How hot it is!               *) What a foolish boy you are!

    *) A sentence that expresses some strong or sudden feeling is called an
     Exclamatory Sentence.

NOTE---From the above it is clear that:-

(1)    Every sentence begins with a Capital letter.
(2)    A Full Stop(.) is placed at the end of every Declarative or Imperative sentence.
(3)    A Question Mark(?) is placed at the end of every Interrogative Sentence.
(4)    An Exclamation Mark(!)  is placed at the end of every Exclamatory sentence.

*) Exercise 1.Write out the following sentences so that they make sense:-

         1)  elephant,an ,the,animal,largest is---------?             
         2)  a,noise,make,do,not ------ ?                                                                       
         3)  sweet,how,rose,this ,smells ------?              
         4)  a,year,months,how,many,are,in,there ------?
         5)  and,milk,butter,cheese,are,made
         6)  girl,what,are,you,a ,clever  --------?
         7)  flower,from,to,flower,fly,bees ------?
         8)  blames,a,workman,bad,his,tools ------?
         9)   wife,children,and,he,his,care,takes,of ------?  
       10) his,country,love,does,who,not  ------?

*) Exercise2.    Say whether each of the following sentences is                                                                          ASSERTIVE,....IMPERATIVE,...INTERROGATIVE OR                                                     EXCLAMATORY:-

1) keep off the grass              ----------?              
2) what nonsense you talk!   ----------?               
3) God save our Queen.        ----------?             
4) Let us keep our promise. -----------?               
5) Have you lost your book? ----------?              
6) How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank!  ?
7) What a piece of work is man! ------------?        
8) Honesty is the best policy.  ------------?               .
9) Do not depend too much on the help of others  ---?  
10) The earth goes round the sun.  -----------?  
11)Mind your own business.   -----------?
12)How old is your elder sister? -----------?
13)What a beautiful night it is! -----------?
14)May God bless you with health. -----------?
15)What is the time by your watch  -----------?
16)Lend me your pen,please.  -----------?
17)What a fool you are! -----------?
19)Animals do not laugh.------------?
20)No news is good news.-------------?    


                         SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

3. Every sentence consists of two parts,expressed or understood:--

(1) The part which names the person or thing we speak about.
      This part of the sentence is called the SUBJECT.

(2) What is said of the person or thing denoted by the subject.
      This part of the sentence is called the PREDICATE.

4. Notice how these sentences are divided into subject and predicate:---

  1Wehave done our duty
2Birdsfly in the air
3A bad workmanblames his tools
4The richare not always happy
5The early birdcatches the worm.

5.The subject does not always come at the beginning of the sentence:-

1) How badly you sing!            3) Across the path lay a frozen snake.
2) Down dropped the breeze.   4) Sweet are the uses of adversity.

           You sing how badly
The breezedropped down
A frozen snakelay across the path
The uses of adversityare sweet

6. In Imperative sentences the Subject is generally left out;as,
           Do this.      [Here the Subject You is understood.]
           Thank you.[Here theSubject I is understood.]     

Exercise 3.Divide the following sentences into SUBJECT and PREDICATE:-
       1) A barking sound the shepherd hears.
       2) Don't make a noise.
       3) The country is lovely in autumn.
       4) The boy stood on the burning deck.
       5)  The stars are shining brightly.
       6) The sun went down.
       7)Work hard.
       8) Darkness came quickly on.
       9) Down fell the mango.
       10) Strange are the ways of God.
       11) Stone walls do not a prison make.
       12) No man can serve two masters.
       13) The singing of the birds delights us.
       14)Swimming is the best kind of exercise.
       15)Delhi,the capital of India,stands on the Jumna.

EXERCISE 4. Add suitable Predicates to the following Subjects:-

     1.The earth---------------------?
     2. The stars--------------------?
     3.A good boy-------------------?
     4.A stationar-------------------?
     5.A butcher---------------------?
     6.Our class--------------------?
     7.Our headmaster------------?
     8.The sun-----------------------?
     9.The Queen of England----?
    10.Our Prime Minister-------?

EXERCISE 5.Add suitable Subjects to the following Predicates:-

    1) -----------consists of thirty pupils.
    2)------------is always likes by his teachers.
    3)-----------opened the Exhibition.
    4)-----------does not move round the earth.
    5)-----------revolves round the sun.
    6)-----------are shining brightly in the sky.
    7)-----------lives in Delhi.
    8)----------make one rupee.
    9)----------sells meat.
    10)--------is very strict.

7.Examine the groups of words in italics in the following sentences:-

1. The sun sets in the west.
2. I must start in a short time.
3.I shot an arrow into the air.
4.It lies beneath my window.

>)These groups of words make sense,but not complete sense.They  have no Subject or Predicate of their own.Such groups of words are called PHRASES.

>)A group of words that makes sense,but not complete sense,is called a PHRASE.

8.Examine the groups of words in italics in the following sentences:-

1.God helps those who help themselves.
2.This is the beggar whom we saw yesterday.
3.I know what she wants.

Here (who help themselves) is a sentence,because it has a subject(who) and a Predicate(help themselves).Similarly ,(whom we saw yesterday) is a sentence,having a Subject(we) and a Predicate(saw yesterday).What she wants is also a sentence,because is has a Subject(she) and a Predicate(wants).Such groups of words are called CLAUSES.

A group of words which forms part of a larger sentence,and contains a subject and a predicate,is called a CLAUSE.

Exercise 6.Say whether the groups of words in italics in the following sentences are phrases or clauses:-

1).This is the house where he lived.---?
2).Make hay while the sun shines.---?
3).Strike the iron while it is hot.----?
4).Show me how to do it.---?
5).It was a scene of great beauty.---?
6).He did it for my sake.---?
7).He worked for three hours.---?
8).The snow has fallen without a sound.
9).People who are selfish are disliked by all.--?
10).Her virtue won her respect.--?

            PARTS OF SPEECH:--

9.Words are classified according to the particular work they do in a sentence.

The particular work which a word does is called its function.
The Parts OF Speech are the classes into which words are divided according to their function in a sentence.

10.There are eight parts of speech:-

(1).Noun..A Noun is the name of a person,placeor thing.

>)Asoka was a noble king.   >)The sun rises in the east.
>)Delhi is on the jumna.      >)Her virtue won her honour.

NOTE:---The words thing means,
(1) all objects that we can see,hear,smell,touch ,or taste;
(2) something that we can think of.

(2).PRONOUN..A Pronoun is a word used instead of a  Noun.

>)As Raman is ill,he will not come to school.
>)When the tiger saw the man,it sprang upon him.

(3).ADJECTIVE..An Adjective is  a word used to qualify(that is,to add something to the meaning of)a Noun.

>)The rose is a beautiful flower.
>)Ashok is a brave boy.
>)Twenty soldiers were killed.

(4).VERB..A Verb is a word used for saying something about a person ,place,or thing.

>)The poor girl cried bitterly.
>)Bombay is a big city.
>)Virtue is its own reward.

(5).ADVERB..An adverb is a word which qualifies a Verb.Adjective or another Adverb.

>)He runs quickly.
>)This painting is very beautiful.
>)The sun was shining so brightly.

(6).PREPOSITION..A Preposition is a word used with a Noun or Pronoun to show its relation to some other words in the sentence.

>)The cat is Lying on the table.
>)The king then sat under a tree.
>)Sita is fond of music.

(7).CONJUCTION..A Conjuction is a word used to join together words,phrases or sentences.

>)Two and two makes four.(words)
>)He was a man of courage but of no reputataion.(Phrases)
>)She is fond of music,but hates dancing.(Sentences)

(8).INTERJECTION..An Interjection is an exclamatory word,denoting some sudden feeling.

>) Hurrah!we have won the match.
>) Hark!the bugles call.
>) Alas!poor Kamala is dead.

11.A word must be classified accordng to its function in the particular sentence in which it is used,and not according to its appearance.The same word does not always belong to the same  Part of Speech;as it changes its function,so it changes its classification.

1).He threw a stone at her.   (Noun)
2).Stone walls do not a prison make.(Adjective)
3).Stone him to death.(Verb)

Exercise 7.Name the part of speech of each italicized word in the  followin sentences:--

1). We had a severe winter ten years ago.-----?
2). They always winter in the south.-----?
3). He will come to us during the winter holidayz.
4). Rest a while.---?
5). Don't while away your time in playing indoor games.
6). Make hay while the sun shines.---?
7). Still waters run deep.---?
8). He still blames me.---?
9). He stole out of the house in the still of night.
10). We shall go out when the wind and the storm are still.
11). Water the plants.
12). He is in hot water.---?
13). He is blind in one eye.---?
14). They eye her with suspicion.---?


12.A Noun is the name of a person ,place,or

NOTE:--In ordinary language  the word thing denotes that which  has no life,but here the word thing means any object or abstract idea we can think about,whether it has a real existence or not.

                              KINDS OF NOUNS

13.Nouns are of five different kinds:---

1).Concrete        {Proper,Common,Collective,Material}

14.Study the following sentences:---

>) Akbar was a  wise king.
>) Rama is a clever boy.
>) Bombay is a big city.

*).Here Akbar is the name of a particular king,while the Noun king can be applied to all kings.

*).Similarly,Rama is the name of a particular boy,while boy can be applied to all boys.
*).Bombay, is the name of a particular city,while city can be applied to all cities.

So Akbar,Rama,Bombay which refer to a particular person or place are called Proper Nouns.

A Proper Noun is the name of a particular person or place.
[A Proper Noun is always written with a  Capital Letter.]

King,boy,city which denotes no one person  or thing in  particular,but are common to any and every person or thing of the same kind,are called Common Nouns.

A Common Noun is a name which is common to any and every person or thing of the same kind.

NOTE:--A Proper Noun may be used as a  Common Noun.

1). He is a Burke(=the greatest orator) of  his age.
2). He is the shakespeare(=the greatest dramatist) of India.

15. A Collective Noun denotes a number  of persons or things grouped together as one  complete whole;as,

*)The crowd was very big.                   A crowd=a collection of people.
*)The English army  won the day.         A flock=a collection of sheep.
*)The jury found him guilty.                 A fleet=a collection of ships.
*)A fleet of fifty ships left the harbour.

16. A distinction is generally made between a Collective Nouns and a Noun of  Multitude.

(1). A Collective  Noun denotes one individual whole;and hence the Verb is singular;as,
      e.g;..The Committee consists of twelve members.

(2). A Noun  of Multitude denotes the individuals of the group;and hence the Verb is plural,although the Noun is singular.
      e.g;..The Committee (=the members  composing the Committee) are quarrelling among     themselves. 

17.A Noun of Material denotes the matter or substance of which things are made;,silver,iron,glass,cotton,wool,clay,steel,stone.
eg;..>) Ornaments are made of silver and gold.
      >) Bottles are made of glass.
      >) Clothes are made of cotton,wool, and silk.

18.An Abstract Noun is the name of some quality ,state or action considered(or imagined) to be apart from the thing to which it belongs.


NOTE:--A Concrete Noun denotes a thing which can be perceived by the senses.It can be seen ,touched,heard,smelt, or tasted; and has also a separate existence.
*)An Abstract Noun relates to something which cannot actually be perceived by the senses,and which is considered apart from the object to which it belongs.
e.g;..,we know iron is hard,..stone is hard,..marble is hard

They all possess the quality of hardness.We can think  of this quality,i.e., hardness apart from  iron,stone or marble.Hence hardness is an Abstract Noun;while iron,stone, and  marble are Concrete Nouns.

Exercise 8:-.Point  out the  Nouns in the following sentences ,and say whether they are   Proper,Common,Collective,Material or Abstract:--

1).A black-board is made of wood.
2).Poverty is a curse.
3).Sweet are the uses of adversity.
4).A gang of robbers entered the city at night.
5).The army was defeated.
6).Delhi is the capital of India.
7).The committee has approved of his appointment.
8).Engines are made of iron.
9).Work is worship.
10).Gold  and silver have I noun.
11).The jury were divided in their opinions.
12).London is the capital of England.
13).Calcutta stands on the Hooghly.
14).Health is wealth.
15).The crew  was a fine one.
16).Parliament will meet next month.
17).I saw a flock of sheep in the field.
18).Patience and preseverance can overcome mountains.
19).Our school team won the match.
20).Our class consists  of twenty boys and ten girls.
21).Cleanliness is next to godliness.


19. There are four Genders in English:--

(1) .The names of male animals or persons are said to be of the MASCULINE GENDER;as,man,boy,lion,hero,king,father.

(2).The names of female animals or persons are said to be of the FEMININE GENDER; as,women,girl,lioness,heroine,queen,mother.

(3).The names of things which indicate either the masculine or the feminine are said to be of the  COMMON GENDER ;as,baby,child,cousin,servant,parent,friend,pupil,person,student,orphan,monarch,relation,teacher,deer,sheep,calf,neighbour.

(4).The names of things that are neither male nor female(i.e.,things without life) are said to be of Neuter Gender;as,,lable,chair,tree,pen,stone.
           [Neuter means neither,i.e,. neither male  nor female.]

20.There are three ways of forming the Feminine of Nouns:--

                        1.By a change of word

*)Masculine :-          *)Feminine:-

>Bachelor                >maid,spinster
>Boar                       >sow 
>Boy                        >girl
>Brother                   >sister
>Buck                      >doe
>Bull(or ox)              >cow
>Bullock                  >heifer
>Cock                      >hen
>Colt                       >filly
>Dog                       >bitch
>Drake                    >duck
>Drone                    >bee
>Earl                       >countess
>Father                    >mother
>Gander                  >goose
>Gentleman             >lady
>Hart                      >roe
>Horse                    >mare
>Husband                >wife
>King                      >queen
>Lord                      >lady
>Man                       >woman
>Monk(or friar)         >nun
>Nephew                  >niece
>Papa                       >mamma
>Ram                       >ewe
>Sir                          >madam
>Son                         >daughter
>Stag                        >hind
>Swain                      >nymph
>Uncle                      >aunt
>Wizard                    >witch

                2.By Adding -ess to the Masculine

(1) The following Feminines are formed by simply adding -ess to the Masculine:--

 *)Masculine                *)Feminine

>Author                        >authoress
>Baron                         >baroness
>Count                         >countess
>Giant                          >giantess
>Heir                           >heiress
>Host                           >hostess
>Jew                            >jewess
>Lion                           >lioness
>Manager                     >manageress
>Mayor                        >mayoress
>Patron                        >patroness
>Peer                           >peeress
>Poet                           >poetress
>Priest                         >priestess
>Prophet                      >prophetess
>Shepherd                    >shepherdess
>Steward                      >stewardess
>Viscount                     >viscountess

(2)The followng Feminines are formed by adding -ess to the Masculine,after omitting the vowel of the last syllable of the Masculine:--

*)Masculine                 *)Feminine

>Actor                         >actress
>Ambassador               >ambassadress
>Benefactor                 >benefactress
>Conductor                 >conductress
>Emperor                    >empress
>Enchanter                  >enchantress
>Founder                    >foundress
>Governer                  >governess
>Hunter                      >huntress
>Inspector                  >inspectress
>Instructor                 >instructress
>Negro                       >negress
>Prince                       >princess
>Songster                   >songstress
>Sorcerer                   >sorceress
>Tempter                   >temptress
>Tiger                        >tigeress
>Traitor                     >traitress
>Waiter                     >waitress

(3) By adding -ess to the Masculine in a less regular way:--

*)Masculine        *)Feminine

>Abbot               >abbess
>Duke                >duchess
>God                  >goddess
>Lad                  >lass
>Master(boy)      >miss(girl)
>Mr                   >Mrs
>Marquis           >marchioness
>Schoolmaster   >schoolmistress

     3.By placing a word before or after

*)Masculine          *)Feminine

>Beggar-man         >beggar-woman
>Bull-calf              >cow-calf
>Cock-sparrow      >hen-sparrow
>He-goat               >she-goat
>Grandfather         >grandmother
>Greatuncle          >greataunt
>Landlord             >landlady
>Man-servant       >maid-servant
>Milkman            >milkmaid
>Merman             >mermaid
>Peacock            >peahen
>Washerman        >washerwoman

21.Study the following Masculines and Feminines:--

*)Masculine          *)Feminine

>Administrator      >Administratrix
>Bridegroom         >bride
>Czar                   >czarina
>Executor             >executrix
>Fox                    >vixen
>Hero                  >heroine
>Prosecutor         >prosecutrix
>Signor               >signora
>Sultan               >sultana
>Testator            >testatrix
>Viceroy             >vicereine
>Widower           >widow

22.collective Nouns,even when they denote living beings,are considered to be of the Neuter Gender;as,
*) The jury has given its verdict.
*)  The committee has changed its opinion.

23.Animals and young  children may be either distinguished by their sex or regarded as of neither sex and spoken of in the Neuter Gender.When speaking of a very young child we may say---

*) The child knows his(or her)own mind.  Or
*) The child knows  its own mind.

But it is ridiculous to say---
   *)Look at John.How merrily it is playing!

We must say---
   *)Look at John.How merrily he is playing!

24.Gender of Personified Objects.Sometimes objects without life are spoken of as if they were persons.They are regarded as males or females.

(1) Things  remarkable for strength,firmness,or energy are regarded as males;as,the Sun,Time,Death,Winter,Summer,Thunder,Ocean.
   *) Then the sun shot his bright rays.
   *) Death always knows his victim.  

(2) Things remarkable for beauty,gracefulness,gentleness are regarded as females;as,the Moon,Earth,Nature,Spring,Hope,Virtue,Charity,Mercy,Faith,Peace.
   *)The  moon shed her light on the bank.
 *)Spring has her own charms and delights.
  *)Love Virtue;she slone is free.
  *)Peace hath her victories no less renowned than war.

NOTE:--A ship is always spoken of as she;as,
  *) The ship fought her way through the stormy waves.

Exercise 9.Rewrite the following sentences changing the Gender of the Nouns and  making other necessary changes:--

1. His mother took him to the Zoo where he had a look at the lions,tigers,stags,rams, and the  peacocks.
2. The negro accompanied by his wife  and daughters came to the king's palace.
3. The poet,the priest, and the Prophet are always inspired by a high deal.
4. The count married a rich heiress, a lass of fifteen, who was a jewess by birth.
5. The Duke called the hunter to his presence and asked him how he had caught the tiger.
6. The ways of the temper,the enchanter,the wizard, and the sorcerer are the same.
7. The prince declared that author had been his sole benefactor.
8. The abbot declared that the waiter was a traitor and murderer.
9. The Mayor was  the patron of art and learning.
10. This shepherd once acted as a host to the Marquis.
11. His uncle is a widower and his brother is a bachelor.
12. The landlady accompanied by her maidservants went to the temple to pray to the goddess for her  husband's speedy return.
13. The conductor led the king his wife to the emperor.
14. When the queen saw her father she alighted from her horse and knelt before him.
15. The monk played the part of the hero.


25). There are two numbers in English---(1) the Singular,and(2) the Plural.

*). A Noun that denotes one person or thing is said to be in the Singular Number;as,
*). A Noun that denotes more than one person or thing is said to be in the Plural Number;as,


26). The Plural of Nouns is fored according to the following rules:--
(1) The Plural of Nouns is generally formed by adding -s to the Singular;as,

 *) Singular      *) Plural

>) Blow            >) blows
>) Garden        >) gardens
>) Hand           >) hands
>) House         >)  houses
>) Map            >)  maps
>) Star              >) stars
>) Stick            >) sticks
>) Stone          >)  stones

(2). Nouns ending in ch(soft),s,sh,x or z form the Plural by adding -es to the Singular;as,

*)Singular       *) Plural
>) Bench          >) benches
>) Box              >) boxes
>) Brush           >) brushes
>) Dish             >) dishes
>) Gas              >) gases
>) Glass           >) glasses
>) Loss            >) losses
>) Quiz            >) quizzes
>) Tax             >) taxes
>) Watch        >) watches

(3) Nouns ending in y,preceded by a consonant,form the Plural by changing y into ies;as,

*) Singular          *) Plural

>) Army               >) armies
>) Baby                >) babies
>) City                  >) cities
>) Duty                >) duties
>) Fly                   >) flies
>) Lady               >)  ladies
>) Pony                >) ponies
>) Story               >) stories

But if the final y is preceded by a vowel(as in ay,ey,or oy), the PLural is formed by adding -s to the Singular;as,

*) Singular           *) Plural

>) Chimney           >) chimneys
>) Day                    >) days
>) Journey            >) journeys
>) key                    >) keys
>) Pay                    >) pays
>) Play                   >) plays
>) Ray                    >) rays
>) Storey               >) storeys
>) Toy                    >) toys
>) Valley               >) valleys

NOTE:--Nouns ending in quy form Plural in ies;as,soliloquy,soliloquies.

(4) Nouns ending in o, preceded by a consonant,generally form the Plural by adding -es to the Singular ;as,

*) Singular             *) Plural

>) Buffalo              >) buffaloes
>) Calico                >) calicoes
>) Cargo                >) cargoes
>) Echo                  >) echoes
>) Hero                  >) heroes
>) Mango               >) mangoes
>) Mosquito          >) mosquitoes
>) Motto                >) mottoes
>) Negro                >) negroes
>) Potato                >) potatoes
>) Torpedo            >) torpedoes
>) Volcano            >) volcanoes

  But all words ending in oo,io,eo, or yo, and some words ending in o preceded by a consonant form the Plural by adding -s to the Singular;as,

*) Singular         *) Plural

>) Bamboo          >) bamboos
>) Cameo             >) cameos
>) Canto               >) cantos
>) Cuckoo            >) cuckoos
>) Curio               >) curios
>) Dynamo          >) dynamos
>) Embryo           >) embryos
>) Photo               >) photos
>) Piano               >) pianos
>) Portfolio         >) portfolios
>) Ratio               >) ratios
>) Quarto            >) quartos
>) Stereo             >) stereos
>) Studio             >) studios

NOTE:--But grotto,halo and memento have two plurals;grottos,grotteos;halos,haloes;mementos,mementoes.

(5) Nouns ending in f or fe form the Plural by changing f or fe into ves;as,

*) Singular              *) Plural

>) Calf                       >) calves
>) Elf                         >) elves
>) Half                       >) halves
>) Knife                    >) knives
>) Leaf                      >) leaves
>) Life                       >) lives
>) Loaf                      >) loaves
>) Sheaf                    >) sheaves
>) Shelf                     >) shelves
>) Thief                     >) thieves
>) Wife                      >) wives
>) Wolf                      >) wolves

But Nouns ending in ff,eef,oof,ief, and rf, and some Nouns ending in f form  the PLural by adding -s to the Singular;as,

*)Singular               *)Plural

>) Belief                   >) beliefs
>) Chief                    >) chiefs
>) Cliff                      >) cliffs
>) Dwarf                  >) dwarfs
>) Grief                    >) griefs
>) Gulf                     >) gulfs
>) Handkerchief     >) handkerchiefs
>) Hoof                     >) hoofs
>) Mischief              >) mischiefs
>)  Proof                    >)proofs
>)Puff                       >) puffs
>) Reef                      >) reefs
>) Roof                     >) roofs
>) Scarf                    >) scarfs
>) Staff                     >) staffs
>) Stuff                    >) stuffs
>) Turf                     >) turfs
>) Wharf                 >) wharfs

NOTE:-(1) There are at least three Nouns ending in fe which form the Plural by simply adding -s;as,
safe--safes;  strife--strifes;  fife--fifes.

(2) Some take both forms;as,
      Hoof--hoofs, hooves;   scarf--scarfs,scarves;  staff--staffs,staves;  wharf--wharfs,wharves.

(3) Thief makes thieves.

27. The following Nouns form their Plural by a change of the inside vowel;as,

*) Singular             *) Plural

>) Dormouse           >) dormice
>) Foot                     >) feet
>) Goose                  >) geese
>) Louse                  >) lice
>) Man                     >) men
>) Mouse                >) mice
>) Tooth                  >) teeth
>) Woman              >) women

28. A few Nouns make Plurals as in Old adding -n or -ne to the Singular and sometimes altering the vowels;as,
      Ox,oxen;{child,children;}{cow,kine(more commonly cows');}{ brother,brethren(more commonly 'brothers').}

29. A Compound Noun generally forms its Plural by adding -s to the principal word;as,

*) Singular                              *) Plural

>) Foot-man                           >) foot-men
>) Hanger-on                         >) hangers-on
>) Looker-on                         >) lookers-on
>) Man-of-war                       >) men-of-war
>) passer-by                          >) passers-by
>) Son-in-law                         >) sons-in-law
>) Step-son                            >) step-sons
>) Washer-man                      >) washer-men
>) Coat-of-mail                      >) coats-of-mail
>) Commander-in-chief        >) commanders-in-chief
>) Court-martial                     >) court-martial
>) Daughter-in-law                >) daughters-in-law
>) Father-in-law                      >) fathers-in-law
>) Knight-errant                     >) knights-errant
>) Major-general                    >) major-generals
>) Maid-servant                    >) maid-servants
>) Mother-in-law                   >)mothers-in-law
>) Spend-thrift                       >) spend-thrifts
>) Step-daughter                   >) step-daughters

 *)There are four Compound Nouns which take a double Plural;as,

*) Singular                    *) Plural

>) Knight-templar         >) Knights-Templars
>) Lord-justice              >) lords-justices
>) Man-servant              >) men-servants
>) Woman-servant        >) women-servants

NOTE:--(1) We say mouthfuls,spoonfuls,handfuls because  they are regarded as one word.
               (2) Compound Nouns ending in man form their Plurals by changing the vowel;as,

Kinsman,kinsmen;   nobleman,noblemen;     Dutchman,Dutchmen;
Frenchman,Frenchmen;    Englishman,Englishmen;    statesman,statesmen.
    But the Plurals of Northman(Northmans),   Brahman(Brahmans),  Musalman(Musalmans),  Turcoman(Turcomans).

30. Some foreign words have foreign Plurals;as,


*) Singular              *) Plurals

>) Addendum          >) addenda
>) Alumnus             >) alumni
>) Apparatus           >) apparatuses
>) Appendix           >) {appendices,appendixes}
>) Curriculum         >) {curricula,curriculums}
>) Datum                 >) data
>) Dictum                >) {dicta,dictums}
>) Erratum               >) errata
>) Focus                  >) foci(focuses)
>) Formula              >) {formulae,formulas}
>) Genius                >) {geniuses(genii)}
>) Index                   >) {indices,indexes}
>) Medium               >) {mediums,media}
>) Memorandum     >) { memoranda,memorandums}
>) Radius                 >) radii
>) Stratum               >) strata
>) Syllabus              >) {syllabi,syllabuses}
>) Terminus             >) {termini,terminuses}

               (2) Greek.

*) Singular                   *) Plural

>) Analysis                 >) analyses
>) Axis                        >) axes
>) Basis                       >) bases
>) Crises                     >) crises
>) Criterion                 >) criteria
>) Hypothesis             >)hypotheses
>) Oasis                      >) oases
>) Parenthesis             >) parentheses
>) Phenomenon         >) phenomena
>) Thesis                     >) theses

     (3) Italian,French and Hebrew.

*) Singular        *) Plural

 > Bandit            >) {banditti,bandits}
>) Bureau           >) {bureaux,bureaus}
>) Cherub          >) {cherubim,cherubs}
>) Madam          >) {mesdames}
>) Monsieur       >) messieurs
>) Seraph           >){seraphim,seraphs}

31. Some Nouns have the same form in the Plural as in the Singular;as, deer,sheep,swine,cod,trout,salmon.

                            CORRECT USAGE:--

32.Several Nouns used in counting ,when preceded by Numerals, are unaltered in the Plural;as,score,dozen,gross,hundred,million,brace,pair,couple,stone,hundredweight.

>). His father has reached the age of four score and ten
>). This watch cost me three hundred rupees.
>). I bought two dozen mangoes.
>). Twenty hundredweight make one ton.

NOTE:-Gross has no plural form,and is always followed by of.We say--a gross of pins,two gross of pins.

33.Some Nouns are found only in the Plural.

(1). Names of pairs of tings which are usually inseperable;as,pincers,tongs,scissors,snuffers,trousers,braces,spectacles,bellows.[Spectacle is used in the Singular in the sense of a 'sight']

(2). Names of things not generally thought  of singly;as,entrails,bowels,victuals,vitals,eatables,movables,valuables.

(3). Names of games;as,billiards,draughts.
(4). Names of diseases;as,measles,mumps.
(5). Some miscellaneous Nouns;as,thanks,nupitals,wages,tidings,proceeds(of sale),assets,environs,obsequies,premises(in the sense of houses,lands,etc).

34. Some Nouns originally Singular are now generally used in the Plural;as,

>)Alms--She gave alms to the blind beggar,and for these he thanked her.
>)Eves--The eves are not yet finished.
>)Riches-Riches have wings.

35.The following Nouns are genarlly used in the Singular:--

>) Mathematics--Mathematics is a difficult subject.
>) News---The news is too good to be true.
>) Innings---The first innings is not yet over.
>) Physics---Physics is his favourite study.
>) Politics---Politics is not meant for young boys
>) Gallows---A gallows has been erected.
"Means" is used either as Singular or Plural.But when it means"wealth",it is always Plural;as,

>) This is simply a means to an end.
>) By these means he passed the examination.
>) His means are small.

36. Some Collective Nouns,though Singular in form,are always treated as Plural;as,

>) Cattle.-- These cattle belong to Mr Smith.
>) People.-- Many people [persons] were in the streets.
>) Vermin.--Vermin have destroyed the crops.
>) Poultry.--These poultry are mine.
>) Gentry.-- The gentry were present there.

NOTE:--When people is used in the sense of "nation",the Plural is peoples;as,

>) The English are a brave people.(Singular)
>) Asia is inhabited by many peoples.(Plural)

37. The  following words are generally used only in the Singular form:--

>) Abuse.---He showered abuse(bad language) on her for no fault.
>) Alphabet.--He has learnt the alphabet.
>) Information.--I shall give you the information you need.
>) Furniture---The whole furniture was spoilt by rain.
>) Offspring---These four sons are my offspring.
>) Poetry---Milton wrote very good poetry(poems).
>) Scenery--The scenery of Kashmir is charming.

38. Note the  following Plurals:

*) Singular                 *) Plural

>) Mr                          >) Messrs
>) Mr                          >) { Messrs White,or the Mr Whites}

>) Mrs                        >) Mesdames
>) Miss Brown         >)  {Misses Brown,or the Miss Browns}

39. The Plural of letters,figures, and symbols is formed by adding an apostrophe and s;as,

>) Mark your p's and q's.
>) Add two 5's and three 4's.
>) Four B.A's and three M.A's applied for the post.

40. Abstract Nouns have strictly no Plural; as, hope,love,kindness, When such words are used in the Plural they become Common Nouns;as,

>) Kindnesses=acts of kindness.
>) Generosities=acts of generosity.

*) Material Nouns also are not used in the Plural;as,copper,tin,stone,iron. When used in the Plural they become Common Nouns and are used in a different sense;as,

>) Coppers=copper coins.
>) Tins=boxes or cans made of tin.
>) Stones=small pieces of stone.
>) Irons= fetters or different kinds of iron.

41.Some Nouns have two forms for the Plural ,with differnt meanings:--

*) Singular        *) Plural

>) Brother         { brothers,sons of same father.
                            { brethren,members of the same society.

>) Appendix      { appendixes,small outgrowth on the surface of an organ.
                             { appendices,something added,especially at the end of a book.

>) Cloth              { cloths,kinds or pieces of cloth.
                             { clothes,garments for wear.
>) Die                  { dies,stamps for coining.
                             { dice,small cubes used in gaming.

>) Fish                { fish,taken collectively.
                             { fishes,taken separately.

>) Genius           { geniuses,men of great genius or talent.
                             { genii,imaginary spirits of the air.

>) Index              { indexes, tables of contents to books.
                              { indices,sings used in algebra

>) Penny              { pennies,denotes the number of coins;as,six pennies.
                              { pence, a sum of money,viewed as a whole;as,ten pence.

>) Shot                 { shot,the small balls fired from a gun;as,Have you any shot left.
                              { shots, the separate acts of shooting;as, He had five shots.

>) Staff                 {staffs,bodies of skilled officers.
                               { staves,sticks or poles.

42. Some Nouns have one meaning in the Singular ,and two in the Plural:_-

*) Singular                    *) Plural

>) Colour:(colour).        * Colours{ 1. Kinds of colour.
                                                     { 2.The flag of a regiment.

>) Custom:(usual practice).     Customs{ 1.Usual practices.
                                                                      { 2. Duty levied upon imports from foreign countries.

>) Effect:(result).                       Effects   { 1. Results
                                                                     { 2.Property

>) Letter{ 1. Of alphabet.          Letters { 1.Letters of the alphabet.        
                { 2.A letter written                   { 2. Letters written to others.
                      to someone.                          { 3. Literature.

>) Manner:(method).                    Manners{ 1. Methods
                                                                      { 2. Corerct behaviour.
>) Moral:( a moral lesson).          Morals{ 1. Moral lessons.
                                                                      { 2. Conduct.
>) Number:(a quantity).               Numbers { 1. Quantities.
                                                                           { 2. Verses.

>) Pain :(suffering).                       Pains{ 1. Sufferings.
                                                                    { 2. Care,exertion;as, No pains,no gains.

>) Part:(portion).                           Parts { 1. Portions. 
                                                                     { 2. Abilities.

>) Premise:{ a statement or         Premises{ 1. Propositions.
                        proposition).                             { 2. Surroundings to a house.

>) Quarter: (a fourth part).            Quarters { 1. Fourth parts.
                                                                           { 2. Lodgings.

>) Spectacle:( a sight).                     Spectacles{ 1. Sights                    
                                                                               { 2. Eye-glasses.

43. Some Nouns have one meaning in the Singular and another in the Plural:---

*) Singular                                   *) Plural

>) Advice:(counsel).                    >) Advices:(information).

>) Air:(atmosphere).                   >) Airs:(affected manners).

>) Compass:{ 1. extent.              >) Compasses:{ an instrument for measuring}
                       { 2. mariner's

>) Copper:(a metal).                   >) Coppers:(coins made of copper).

>) Force:(strength or energy).  >) Forces:( army).

>) Good: (benefit).                      >) Goods:( property).

>) Iron: ( a metal).                      >) Irons:(fetters made of iron).

>) Physic: ( medicine).               >) Physics:( natural science).

>) Respect: ( regard).                >) Respects:( compliments).

>) Return:( coming back).        >) Returns:( statistics).

Exercise 10. Write out the following sentences,changing the Nouns in brackets into the Plural Number:--

>) The (negro)  were not fond of(tomato);they preferred(potato).
>) The (lady) were stung by (mosquito).
>) The (hero) rode on their(pony).
>) They paid (tax) on the ( cargo).
>) The (wolf) attacked the(calf) but were driven by a group of(dwarf).
>) The (cry) of the(wolf) made(echo) among the(reef).
>) The (thief) hid themselves among the(bamboo).
>) The (Volcano) throw out molten lava.
>) The(actress) played the (piano).
>) Most(child) as well as (man) and (woman) ,and even(baby),have bad (tooth).
>) I saw a group of (mouse) chasing the farmers (wife) who cut off their (tail) and (nose) and  blinded their (eye) with their ( knife).
>) These (box) are full of (watch).

Exercise 11. Correct the following sentences:---

>) The sceneries of Kashmir are very charming.
>) The negroes have dirty hairs.
>) The news are good.
>) That house is built of stones.
>) Do you like these poetries?
>) Five hundreds men were present there.
>) I bought two dozens oranges.
>) The solitary Reaper is a nice poetry.
>) We must take pity on poor blinds.
>) Poors are always with us.
>) Politics are not meant for young boys.
>) I  do not were trouser.
>) Father-in-lawas loves their son-in-laws.
>) His cattles are grazing in the fields.
>) Please cut it with a scissors.
>) Physics are an interesting subject.
>) I saw four deers in the field.
>) Such phenomenon are seen on the Red Sea
>) This car cost me forty thousands rupees.
>) What are the criterions of success in life?

Exercise 12. Write out the following sentences choosing the correct form of the Verbs given in brackets:----

>) No news (is,are) good news.
>) Evil(was,were) the news we heard.
>) The tiding(is,are) false.
>) The odds (is,are) against us.
>) The gallows(has,have) just been erected.
>) Mathematics(is,are) his favourite study.
>) Riches(have,has) wings.
>) Politics(are,is) an inetersting subject.
>) There (is,are) few gentry in this town.
>) Alms(was.were) given to the poor.
>) Thanks(is,are) due to him.
>) Mankind(does,do) not know this.
>) My spectacles (is,are) missing.
>) Measles (is,are) an infectious disease.
>) The second innings(is,are) not yet over.  


44. Read the following sentences:---

(1). The king killed the lion.
(2). He bought a silver watch.
(3).The lion was killed by the king.

*)In sentence 1. ,the Noun king is the Subject of the verb killed.

*)In sentence 2..the Pronoun he is the Subject of the verb bought.

*)In sentence 3.,the Noun lion is the Subject of the Verb was killed. 

The Nouns king,lion and the Pronoun he which form the Subject of a Verb are said to be  in the Nominative Case.
   Any Noun(or Pronoun) that is the Subject of a Verb is said to be in the  Nominative Case.

NOTE:--We can always find the Nominative in a sentence by putting Who? or What? before the Verb,Who killed the lion? The king.Who bought a silver watch? He . What was killed by the king? The lion.

45. Read the following sentences:--

(1) The policeman caught the thief.
(2) Bali killed him.
(3) The book is on the table.
(4) I arrived before her.

*) In sentence 1. the Noun thief is the Object of the Verb Caught.
*) In sentence 2. the Pronoun him is the Object of the Verb killed.
*) In sentence 3. the Noun table is the Object of the Preposition on
*) In sentence 4. the Pronoun her is the Object of the Preposition before.

"Thief" and" him" which form the Object of a Verb are said to be in the Objective(or Accusative) Case. "Table" and "her" which are governed by a Preposition are also said to be in the Objective Case.
    Any Noun(or Pronoun) that is the Object of  a Verb or is governed by a Preposition is said  to be in the Objective(or Accusative) Case.

NOTE:-To find the Accusative Case put Whom? or What? before the Verb and  its Subject.
*) Whom did the policeman catch?The thief.
*) Whom did Bali kill? Him.

46.Examine the following sentences:-- 

(1) This is Ashok's book.
(2) Raman's pen is broken.

*) In sentence 1, Ashok's answers the questions'whose book'? 'who is the Possessor?' and is  said to be  in the Genitive (or Possessive) Case.Similarly,
 *) Raman's is in the Possessive Case.

The Possessive answers the question---Whose?


47. The Possessive Case of a Singular Noun is formed by adding 's;as,
   *) The girl's pen;
   *) The horse's tail;
   *) The king's palace.

48. The Possessive Case of a Plural Noun end in 's' is formed by adding the apostrophe(')only;as,
 *)  Boys' books;
  *) Birds' nests;
  *) Horses' tails;.

49. The Possessive Case of Plural Noun not ending in 's' is fomed by adding's;as,
  *)  Men's faces;
  *)  Children's books;
  *)  Mice's tails;
  *)   Women's work.

50. The Possessive Case of Singular Nouns is formed by adding the apostrophe only where too many hissing sounds come together;as,
  *) Moses' laws;..for conscience' sake;...for righteousness' sake; for justice' sake.

51. When several Nouns are taken together the Possessive sign is used with the last one only;as,

*) Mr Smith,the chemist's shop.
*) The Chairman of the Committee's report.
*) The Government of India's declaration.
*) My father-in-law's house.
*) Huntley and Gardiner's biscuits.

                     CORRECT USAGE:--

52.(Cathedral,house,school,shop) are sometimes omitted after a Noun in the Possessive Case;as,

>) The prayer for the Queen's life was held at St.Paul's[cathedral].
>) He goes to St.Stephen's[school].
>) I saw her at E.Plomer's[shop].
>) I think there is a baker's[shop] next to butcher's[shop].

53. Mark the distinction between;--

(1) A picture of the King[= a picture presenting the likeness of the King].
(2) A picture of the King's[=a picture of which the King is owner].

54. Note the following:---
*) A friend of Ashok's was on the train.
*) A friend of Ashok's implies that Ashok has more than one friend;Ashok's friend would refer to Ashok's only friend or to a friend previously mentioned.


55.The Possessive Case  is now used chiefly with Nouns denoting living beings;as,

>) Mohan's pen;
>) The tiger's claws,
>) The bird's nest.

*) So we must say:---
>) The roof of the house[not,the house's roof].
>) The door of the cottage[not,the cottage's door].

56.The Possessive Case is also used with Nouns denoting personified things;as,
   >) Fortune's favourite
   >) Nature's laws;
   >) Duty's call;
   >) Sorrow's tears.

57.The Possessive Case is also used with Nouns denoting time,space,weight;as,
     >) A day's work
     >) A month's holiday
    >) A few minutes' rest
    >) A hair's breadth
   >)  A stone's throw
    >) A metre's length
    >) A ton's weight
    >) A kilogram's weight.

58. The Possessive is also used in a few familiar phrases;as,
      >) Out of harm's way.
      >) At his wit's end.
      >) At arm's length.
      >) At his finger's crew.
      >) His heart's content.
      >) For mercy's sake.
      >) The journey's end.
      >) The boat's crew.

*) The Vocative Case (Nominative of Address)

59. Read the following sentences:---

>) Listen to me,Jack.
>) O Death, where is thy sting?
>) Where are you wandering,my pretty maid?

In these sentences,Jack,Death,maid are the names of the persons or things spoken to or addressed. They are,therefore ,said to be in the Vocative Case.
    The Vocative Case(Nominative of ADDRESS) is the case of the person or thing addressed.

                  THE DATIVE CASE:---

60. Look carefully at the following sentences:----

>) He gave Sheila a pen.
>) He bought John a watch.
>) He told her a story.

*) To whom did he give a pen? To Sheila.
*) For whom did he buy a watch? For John.
*) Whom did he tell a story? Her.

>) The words Sheila,John,her which are Indirect Objects are said to be in the Dative Case.
>) A Noun or Pronoun is in the Dative Case when it forms the Indirect Objects of a Verb

NOTE:--To find the Dative Case ,ask the question 'To Whom?' or 'For whom?'

Exercise 13. Correct the following sentences:---

>) Call at Smith's the chemist.
>) The National Anthem is Rabindra nath Tagore,one of the great poets of India's.
>) The street's width is insufficient.
>) The table's legs are broken.
>) The house's roof fell down.
>) The firm you so much admire is Jack's,John's and William's
>) It was his mother's  sister's  son's house.
>) I have seen Tagore's , the poet's paintings.
>) This house is of my fater.
>) These are the children's clothes who are bathing.


61. Read the follwing sentence:---

>) Asoka, the great king,ruled wisely.

      We see that Asoka and king refer to one and the some person.The noun king follows the noun Asoka simply to describe Asoka.
      When one noun follows another to describe it, the noun which follows is said to be in apposition to the noun which comes before it.
        [Apposition means placing near].

A Noun or Pronoun which stands in apposition to a Noun or Pronoun agrees with it in case:
  >) I, your father,forbid it.( Nominative Case)
  >) Do you dare to disobey me,your father?( Accusative Case)


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