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Friday, November 26, 2010

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE ( 8 )

                                      CHAPTER-17

181. A Transitive Verb has two voices---(1) the Active, (2) the Passive.

182. Compre the following :--
        1). The king killed the lion.
        2). The lion was killed by the king.

      *) You will see that both the sentences mean the same thing.But in the first sentence,the Subject(the king) is the doer of the action(killed).In the second sentence,the Subject(the lion) is the sufferer or receiver of the action(was killed).

       *) A Verb is said to be in the Active Voice whn the person or thing denoted by the Subject acts or is active. [So,the verb killed is Active.]
      *) A Verb is said to be in the Passive Voice when the person or thing denoted by the Subject does not act,but suffers the action done by something or by someone.
       [So,the Verb was killed is Passive.]



183. An Intransitive Verb is not used in the Passive Voice,unless it takes a Cognate Object in the
        Active;as,

     >) Active.     He has fought a good fight.
     >) Passive.   A good fight has been fought by him.

              
                            *) ACTIVE AND PASSIVE

184. We can turn Active into Passive by taking the Object in the Active Voice and making it the
         Subject in the Passive Voice;as,

        Active .      The people cheered the king.
        Passive.      The king was cheered by the people

        Active.       Harry struck Mary.
        Passive.     Mary was struck by Harry

        Active.       The hunter shot the tiger.
        Passive.      The tiger was shot by the hunter.

        Active.       Ashok has written this letter.
        Passive.      This letter has been written by Ashok.

        Active.       I have taught this girl.
        Passive.     This girl has been taught by me.

        Active.       The teacher will forgive him.
        Passive.      He will be forgiven by the teacher.

185. When a transitive verb has two Objects,wither the Direct or the Indirect Object may  become the Subject of the sentences in the Passive;as,

        Active.       Rama lent me(Ind.Obj.) ten rupees(dir.Obj.)
        Passive.    {I was lent ten rupees by rama.
                          { Ten rupees were lent me by Rama.

        Active.       I taught him(Ind.Obj.) English(Dir.Obj.).
        passive.    {He was taught English by me.
                         { English was taught him by me.

        Active.       The king gave the commander a reward.
        Passive.    { The commander was given a reward by the king.
                          { A reward was given the commander by the king.

NOTE:--The Object after the Passive Verb is called the Retained Object.

186. When a Factitive Verb is changed from the Active Voice to the Passive,the Objective
         Complement becomes a Subjective one;as,

         Active.        They made him General.
         Passive.       He was made general by them.

         Active.        They crowned him king.
         Passive.       He was crowned king by them.

187. Below are given some difficult examples of the Active and Passive Voice:---
        
         Active.        All trust an honest man.
         Passive.      Am honest man is trusted  by all.

         Active.        Who taught her french?
         Passive.       By whom was she taught French?

         Active.        Why did your father refuse such an honourable job?
         Passive.       Why was such an honourable job refused by your father?

         Active.        Whom did you laugh at?
         passive.       Who was laughed at by you?

         Active.         Shut the door.
         Passive.       let the door be shut.

         Active.         Ask him to come in.
         passive.        Let him be asked to come in.

        Active.          Grass grew over the field.
        passive.         The field was overgrown with grass.

        Active.          One should keep one's promise.
        passive.         promises should be kept.

        Active.          Who killed the snake.
        Passive.         By whom was the snake killed?

        Active.          They sold many tickets at the gate.
        Passive.         Many tickets were sold at the gate.

        Active.          The crowd expected him to arrive at ten.
        Passive.         He was expected to arrive at ten.

        Active.           You surprise me.
        Passive.          I am surprised.

NOTE:--In the last three examples,the Subject disappears in the Passive.

188. The following instances require special attention :--

        passive.          He was called a fool.
        Active.           They called him a fool.

       Passive.          He was taught this in his boyhood.
       Active.            Somebody taught him this in his   boyhood.

       Passive.          His pocket has been picked.
       Active.            Someone has picked his pocket.

Exercise 50. Put the following sentences into the Passive Form :---



       1) The Governor opened the Exhibition.
       2) They fixed the time at ten o'clock.
       3) He made a remarkable speech.
       4) Manners make character.
       5) He kept us waiting.
       6) Our team scored three goals.
       7) Who killed the tiger?
       8) The mason is building the house.
       9) He will finish the work in about a week.
      10) Why did your brother give such a rude reply?
      11) A stone struck him on the head.
      12) The king gave her a reward.
      13) This play surprised the visitors.
      14) We refused them admission.
      15) All the boys laughed at him.
      16) They saw the clouds thundering.
      17) John gave him a book.
      18) The teacher told us a story.
      19) In winter people burn a great deal of coal.
      20) Enter by the left door.
      21) Keep to the left.
      22) Give the order.
      23) Do not insult the poor.
      24) Who did this?
      25) Let me do this.
      26) One should obey one's parents.
      27) Who has broken the chair?
      28) I cannot agree to your proposal.
      29) Never deceive a friend.
      30) I forgive him all his faults.

Exercise 51. Put the following sentences into the Active Form :--
      
      1) A lion may be helped even by a little mouse.
      2) The king was welcomed by the people.
      3) My cares are left behind.
      4) He was taken for a thief.
      5) He was known to be a kind man.
      6) Men have been ruined by gambling.
      7) War was declared against germany by England.
      8) A present was bought for her by her mother.
      9) He was made General by them.
     10). By whom was this letter written?
     11) We shall be cursed by everyone.
     12) The robber has been caught by the police.
     13) By whom were you taught French?
     14) Why were you punished by the teacher?
     15) I was struck by her good looks.
     16) Another chance was given him by this employer.
     17) She was dismissed from service.
     18) A poor blind beggar was knocked down by a bus.
     19 The car was started with great difficulty.
     20) The telephone wires have been cut.
     21) Three doses are to be taken daily.
     22) He was buried secretly.
     23) He was greatly distressed  by the news.
     24) Our action was justified by the facts.
     25) The young soldier was brought before the king.
     26) He was not crowned king by them.
     27) The light was switched off by them.
     28) The criminal was arrested  by the police.
     29) Not a word was spoken by the criminal in self-defence.
     30) Let this post be advertised.

Exercise 52.Change the Voice in the following sentences :--
                   
      1)  She bought the baby a doll.
      2) They were refused admission.
      3) Without effort nothing can be gained.
      4) He was found guilty of murder.
      5) Why should we be surprised by you?
      6) She will be greatly surprised if She is selected.
      7) They painted the house white.
      8) She told me to leave the room.
      9) He promised her a present.
     10) A thunderstorm often turns milk sour.
     11) The whole town was destroyed by the earthquake.
     12) The leader was welcomed by the people.
     13) The first railway was built by George Stephenson.
     14) We expect good news.
     15) The telegram has just been received.
     16) The thief was caught red-handed.
     17) She was loved and honoured by all.
     18) My watch has been stolen.
     19) Please keep off the grass.
     20) We elected Sami captain.
     21)  The building was damaged by fire.
     22) She was taken to hospital by her husband.
     24) The lift is operated by electricity.
     25) We shall be blamed by everyone.
     26) Shall we ever forget those happy days?
     27) Who  discovered America?
     28) Will your brother pay your fees today?
     29)  She had not confessed her guilt.
     30) They had done their duty.
     31) Many have been ruined by gambling.
     32) Sweets were distributed to the children.

           *) MORE ABOUT THE PASSIVE VOICE

189. The Passive Voice is generally used when
        (1) We do not know the doer of an action,or when
        (2) We are not interested in the doer or the agent.
       It is used when the stress is laid upon the thing done rather than upon the doer of it.

           PASSIVE VOICE (Simple Present and Simple Past)
190. (a) In the Simple Present  Tense the construction of the sentence in the Passive Voice is:

                        is/are+past participle
        1) The sky is covered with clouds.
        2) This table is covered with chalk dust.
        3) This paper is torn.
        4) The chair is broken.
        5) The door is locked.
        6) Rice is grown in India.
        7) The band is played on this occasion.
        8) All the streets are swept daily.
        9) Sweets are distributed to school children.
      10) Meals are given to the poor.
      11) All the buildings are brightly lit with electric lights.

(b) In the Simple Past Tense the construction of the sentence in the Passive Voice is:

                    was/were+the past participle
       1) I was taken into a large room and shown several bags.
       2) Our school was built in 1947.
       3) America was discovered in 1492.
       4) The old man was knocked down by a car.
       5) The exhibition was opened  by the Governor.
       6) His pocket was picked.
       7) His purse was stolen.
       8) The freedom of our country was won by Mahatma gandhi.
       9) All the thieves were caught and punished.
      10) They were given books as prizes by the Headmaster.
      11) They were loved and respected by all.
      12) They were paid for their labours.
      13) All the doors and windows were closed.

   *) PASSIVE VOICE(Present Cotinuous and Past Continuous)

191. (a) In the Present Continuous Tense the construction of the sentence in the Passive Voice is:
                    
                       is being/are being+the past participle
         1) My house is being whitewashed these days.
         2) My radio is being repaired now.
         3) Food is being cooked.
         4) The table is being pushed by me.
         5) What language is being spoken now? English is.
         6) Some pieces of paper are being blown along by the wind.
         7) They are being given an English lesson.
         8) Whose shoes are being mended now?Mine are.
         9) Sweets are being distributed to the children.
        10) Elections are being held these days.

(b) In the Past Continuous Tense the construction of the sentence in the Passive Voice is:

                        was being/were being+the past participle
        1) He was being pushed along in a cart when I saw him.
        2) I was just being given a cup of tea when the dog jumped on my back.
        3) Food was being cooked when I entered the house.
        4) Songs were being sung by the girls when i went into the hall.
        5) Fields were being ploughed by the farmers when it began to rain.
        6) Prizes were being given by the Headmaster when the lights went out.

                    PASSIVE VOICE(Present Perfect)

192. In the Present Perfect Tense the construction of the sentence in the Passive Voice is:

                     has been/have been+the past participle
       1) My book has been stolen.
       2) His father has been elected President.
       3) She has been praised for her work.
       4) The thief has been caught.
       5) Germany has been defeated.
       6) My house has been painted.
       7) The question paper has been set.
       8) Nobody has been seen in the library this week.
       9) They have been warned by the Headmaster.
      10) New books have been printed this year.
      11) All the students have been informed.

               PASSIVE VOICE(Past Perfect)

193. In the Past Perfect Tense the construction of the sentence in the Passive Voice is:

                    had been+the past participle
      1) He had already been taken to hospital before the police came.
      2) The book had been printed before anyone saw the mistake.
      3) All the thieves had been caught before they could escape.
      4) All the food had been eaten before I reached there.
      5) All the soldiers had been put to death before help came.

               PASSIVE VVOICE(Past Future)

194. In the Past Future Tense the construction of the sentence in the Passive Voice is:

               would be/should be+the past participle
      1) He told me that all the roads would be swept.
      2) He told me that the prize distribution would be held on Sunday.
      3) They told her that she would not be allowed to go there.
      4) They told me that I should not be needed any longer.
      5) The Headmaster told us that we should be prepared for the examination any day.
      6) The teacher told us that bad boys would be punished and good boys would be rewarded.

                PASSIVE VOICE(Perfect Conditional)

195. In Perfect Conditional the construction of the sentence in the PASSIVE VOICE IS:

               would have been+the past participle
      1) The thief would have been caught if the police had been quicker.
      2) Nothing would have been known if you had not said anything.
      3) Raman would have been selected in the team if he had played well.
      4) Kamal would have been elected President if all the students had voted for him.
      5) Raju would not have been killed if he had not tried to cross the road.

                PASSIVE INFINITIVE

196. In the Passive Infinitive the construction is:

             to be+the past participle
      1) She wants to be taken home.
      2) He did not like to be helped.
      3) He wanted to be allowed to go home.
      4) She wished to be rewarded.
      5) She wanted to be examined in English.
      6) They did not like to be praised.

Exercise 53. Write the correct forms of the Verbs given in brackets:--

      1) She(to praise) by us.
      2) Not a word(to speak) by Ali.
      3) My pocket(to pick).
      4) The king(to welcome) by the people.
      5) The old man(to knock) down by a car.
      6) All the thieves(to catch).
      7) All these boys(to punish) by the teacher.
      8) The mirror(to break).
      9) The telegraph wires(to cut).
     10) The little child(to hurt).
     11) Our school(to build)ten years ago.
     12) He was (to appoint)  Governor by the President.
     13) He was (to choose) President.
     14) My watch(to steal).
     15) We (to invite) to a party last Sunday.
     16) We(to blame) by everyone.
     17) You (to punish).
     18) He(to attack) by thieves.
     19) My house (to whitewash) these days.
     20) Elections (to hold) this year.

Exercise 54.Write the correct forms of the Verbs given in brackets:--

     1) An honest man(to trust) by all.
     2) English(to speak) all over the world.
     3) We(to blame) by everyone.
     4) The poor beggar (to knock down) by a car.
     5) He (to honour) by his countrymen.
     6) He (to punish) by the Headmaster.
     7) The King (to welcome) by the people.
     8) She (to take) to hospital by her friend.
     9) The boy (to reward) by the teacher for his good work.
    10) This play (to write) by Tagore.
    11) The building (to burn) by fire.
    12) The thief (to beat) by the police.
    13) The boy (to bite) by a snake.
    14) The thief (to catch) by the police.
    15) The work (to finish) by him in a fortnight.
    16) The letter (to post) last night.
    17) America (to discover) by Columbus.
    18) We (to  keep) waiting by them.
    19) The horse (to frighten) by the sudden noise.
    20) The meeting (to disturb) by some  young men.
    21) She was (to hit) by  stone.
    22) All the goods ( to steal) by  someone.
    23) The trees ( to blow) down by the storm.
    24) He (to appoint) General by the President.
    25) He(to let) off with a fine.
    26) The streets (to sweep) daily.
    27) This car (to buy)  by me for Rs.30,000.
    28) We ( to forgive) by the teacher.
    29) Many tickets (to sell) all the gate.
    30) He ( to shoot) dead by the robbers.
  
Exercise 55. Write the correct foems of the Verbs given in brackets:--

    1) Raman was feeling proud because his father (to elect) President.
    2) When I entered the house I found that everything (to steal).
    3) The thief ( to catch) before the police came.
    4) The Headmaster told us that the Governor (to give) a warm welcome.
    5) The teacher told us that we (to punish) if we made a noise in the class.
    6) He told us that fresh elections (to Held) in February.
    7) Nobody (to see) in the library this week.
    8) You ( to warn) that if you don't work hard,you won't pass your examination.
    9) These three boys ( to praise) by their teacher.
   10) He told me that I (to warn).
   11) He told me that I ( to send) to delhi for a week.
   12) The robbers (to catch) if the police had been quicker.
   13) He ( to pardon) if he had confessed his fault.
   14) He (to run) over by the car if he had crossed the road.


               






    

             

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